PSYB45 definitions.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

CHAPTER 11 Backward chainingA type of chaining procedure in which the last component of the chain is taught firstOnce the last response in the chain occurs consistently when the discriminative stimulus is presented the next to last component is taught and the last two components of the chain occur togetherThis training sequence proceeds until the client has learned all the components in the chain Behavioral chaina complex behavior consisting of two or more component behaviors that occur together in a sequenceFor each component behavior there is a discriminative stimulus and responseA behavioral chain is sometimes called a stimulusresponse Chaining proceduresprocedures used to teach a person to engage in a chain of behaviorsIncludes backward chaining forward chaining total task presentation written task analysis picture prompts and selfinstructions Forward chaininga procedure for teaching a chain of behaviorsThe first component of the chain is taught through prompting and fading and once the first component has been learned the second component is addedOnce the first two components have been learned the third component is addedThis training sequence continues until all components of the chain are learned Graduated guidancea prompting strategy used with the total task presentation procedure in which you provide full handoverhand assistance as a prompt for the learner to complete the behaviorAs the learner begins to engage in the behavior independently you gradually fade your assistance but continue to shadow the learners movements so that you can provide assistance whenever it becomes necessaryEventually the shadowing is eliminated and the person engages in the behavior independently Picture promptsa type of prompt in which the client is presented with a picture of a person engaging in the target behaviorThe picture acts as a prompt for the client to engage in the correct behavior at the correct timeOften a sequence of pictures is presented to prompt a client to engage in a chain of behaviors Selfinstructionsselfstatements that make it more likely that a target behavior will occur in a specific situation Stimulusresponse chainsee behavioral chain Task analysisidentification of the discriminative stimulus and response for each component of a behavior chain Total task presentationa procedure for teaching a chain of behavior in which the trainer physically prompts the learner through all steps in the chainEventually the trainer fades the physical prompts and shadows the learners movements as he or she completes the chain of behaviorsEventually the learner completes the chain without any assistance from the trainer Written task analysisa written task analysis of each discriminative stimulus and response in a chain of behaviorsSometimes a written task analysisalso known as textual prompts is given to the learner to guide the learners behavior through the chain of behaviors CHAPTER 12Behavioral skills training procedure BSTa procedure consisting of instructions modeling behavioral rehearsal and feedback that is used to teach new behaviors or skills Feedbackin behavioral skills training procedures feedback involves delivering praise for successful performance in a behavioral rehearsal and instruction on ways to improve the performance in the future In situ assessmentassessment of skills in the natural environment without the persons knowledge that assessment is taking place In situ trainingtraining that occurs in the natural environment after an in situ assessment in which the child fails to use the skills Instructionsverbal descriptions of the behavior to be performedA component of the behavioral skills training procedureInstructions often are used in conjunction with modeling and are most effective when the person has an opportunity to rehearse the behavior immediately in a roleplay Modeling modeling prompta type of prompt in which the trainer demonstrates the target behavior for the learnerModeling works best in conjunction with instructions in situations in which the learner has an opportunity to rehearse the behavior immediately in a roleplay Rehearsalpractice of the behavior in a roleplay situation after instructions and modelingRehearsal is followed by feedback on the performanceCHAPTER 13 ABC observationfunctional assessment method involving direct observation of the antecedents the target behavior and the consequences of the behaviorTypically conducted in the natural environment where the target behavior occurs Descriptive assessments Experimental analysis of behaviorthe scientific study of behavior and the types of environmental events that are functionally related to the occurrence of behaviorInvolves laboratory research with nonhumans and humansFunctional analysisa functional assessment method in which environmental events antecedents and consequences of the behavior are manipulated to demonstrate a functional relationship between the environmental events and the behaviorFunctional assessmentthe process of generating information on the events preceding and following the behavior in an attempt to determine which antecedents and consequences are reliably associated with the occurrence of the behaviorIncludes indirect assessment through interviews and
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