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PSYB51 Final Notes.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

PSYB51 FINAL NOTES 18LECTURE 1Early Philosophy of Perception Plato Our understanding of reality is restricted to things that we can perceiveHeraclitus Idea that perceiver cannot perceive the same event in exactly the sam a manner each time Adaptation A reduction in response caused by prior or continuing stimulationDemocritus The world is made up of atoms that collide with one another Sensations are caused by atoms leaving objects and making contact with our sense organs Perception is the result of the physical interaction between the world and our bodies Sensory transducer A receptor that converts physical energy from the environment into neural activity Nativism and EmpiricismNativism The idea that the mind produces ideas that are not derived from external sourcesPlato truest sense of reality comes from peoples minds and souls Descartes dualist view of the world both mind and body exist Mindbody dualism the idea positing the existence of two distinct principles of being in the universe spiritsoul and matterbody Monism The idea that the mind and matter are formed from or reducible to a single ultimate substance or principle of being Materialism The idea that physical matter is the only reality and everything including the mind can be explained in terms of matter and physical phenomena Materialism is a type of monism Empiricism The idea that experience from the senses is the only source of knowledge Hobbes believed that everything that ever be known or even imagined had to be learned through the senses ie empiricism Locke sought to explain how all thoughts even complex ones could be constructed from experience with a collection of sensations ie empiricism The Dawn of PsychophysicsFechner invented psychophysics thought to be the true founder of experimental psychologyPanpsychism The idea that all matter has consciousness FechnerPsychophysics The science of dening quantitative relationships between physical and psychological subjective events Weber was interested in the smallest differencechange in a stimulus that can be detected JND Just noticeable difference the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli or the minimum change in a stimulus that can correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus Also known as difference thresholdExample twopoint threshold The minimum distance at which two stimuli eg two simultaneous touches can be distinguishedWeber discovered that the JND is a constant proportion of the stimulus levelWebers LawFechners Law A principle describing the relationship between stimulus magnitude and resulting sensation magnitude such that the magnitude of subjective sensation increases proportionally to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity Stevens Power Law A principle describing the relationship between stimulus magnitude and resulting sensation magnitude such that the magnitude of subjective sensation is proportional to the stimulus magnitude raised to an exponentAbsolute threshold Minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50 of the time Psychophysical Methods Method of constant stimuli Method of limits Method of adjustment Magnitude of estimation and Crossmodality matchingMagnitude of constant stimuli A psychophysical method in which many stimuli ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable or rarely to almost always perceivably different from a reference stimulus are presented one at a time Participants respond to each presentation yn or samedifferent Method of Limits A psychophysical method in which the particular dimension of a stimulus or the difference between two stimuli is varied incrementally until the participant responds differently Method of Adjustment A method of limits in which the subject controls the change in the stimulus Magnitude Estimation Participants are asked to assign values according to perceived magnitudes of stimuliCrossmodality matching method Matching intensitiesmagnitudes of sensations that come from different modalities Signal Detection Theory A psychophysical theory that quanties the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of a noise The showerandthephone situationThere is internal noise and external noise What inuences biases cost of decisions probability of events personality Biology of PerceptionDoctrine of specic nerve endings a doctrine stating that the nature of a sensation depends on which sensory bres are stimulated not on how bres are stimulatedVitalism belief that special vital forces drive living organisms Cranial nerves Twelve pairs of nerves that originate in the brain stem and reach the periphery through openings in the skull Olfactory optic oculomotor trochlear abducens auditory Helmholtz studied activity of neurons how fast they transmit signals Slow speed contradicted vitalism Resonators and ophthalmoscope Perception as inference Synapse the junction between neurons that permit information transfer Discovered by Santiago Ramon y Cajal Slows down neural signals Neurotransmitter a chemical substance used in neural transmission communication at synapsesNeurons re in all or none fashion for each spike and the number of spikes per second indicated how excited the neurons isEach action potential starts near the cell body of a neurone and propagates down the axon towards the axon terminalHodgkinHuxley cycle electrochemical process involving Na and K ions moving in and out of the neuronEntire populations of neurons work in concert to process information Electroencephalography EEG A technique that using many electrodes on the scalp measures electrical activity from populations of many neurons in the brain often averaged into eventrelated potentials ERPs ie voltages are calculated aligned in time relative to the onset of a stimulus or a motor responseMagnetoencephalography MEG A technique similar to EEG that measures changes in magnetic activity across populations of many neurone in the brain Functional MRI fMRI measures localized patterns of activity in the brain through the blood oxygen leveldependent BOLD signal
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