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All midterm notes, includes lecture AND readings

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Matthias Niemeier

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PSYB51 PERCEPTION AND COGNITION Midterm #1 Notes Chapter 1 Introduction Early philosophy of perception Platos allegory of the cave our reality is defined (restricted) by our senses most of what we perceive depends on what changes, not what if constant Heraclitus: you can never step into same river twice... everything is always changing experiencing the first event changes the way we experience the same event a second time perception also depends on qualities of the perceiver our senses have evolved to match just the sorts of energy in environment that are most important for our survival things that move change draw our attn adaptation: reduction in response caused by prior continuing stimulation ... perception quickly comes to ignore anything that stays same for very long Democritus: believed that sensations are caused by atoms leaving objects and making contact with our sense organs our senses should be trusted becuz perception is result of physical interaction bw world and our bodies primary qualities = directly perceived (weight + texture) secondary qualities = requires interaction bw atoms from objects and atoms in perceiver sensory transducers = receptor that converts physical energy from environment into neural activity perception is likley to depend more on experience than sensory reception does Nativism idea that the mind produces ideas that are not derived from external sources, that we have innate abilities that are not learned Plato believed in this, that body and mind are separate entities Plato: truest sense of reality comes from ppls mind and souls Descartes: dualist, mind to be quite separate from the body all true ideas must come from the mind, didnt trust his senses monism: mind and matter are made up of reducible to a single ultimate substance materialism: physical matter is the only reality mentalism: mind is the true reality, objects exist only as aspects of minds awareness (type of monism) Empiricism Hobbes: only matter exists model of human nature relies entirely on experience he thought memories were simply sensory experiences that were old and faded and imagination is nothing but decaying sense Locke: all thoughts ccould be constructed from experience with a collection of sensations Fechner: inventor of psychophysics, true founder of experimental psychology Psychophysical methods (4) absolute threshold: faintest amount of stimulation that can be detected 1. method of limits: stimuli is presented in order of increasing decreasing intensity varied incrementally until participant responds diff 2. method of adjustment: participant is the one who steadily increases decreases intensity of stimulus 3. method of constant stimuli: many stimuli (ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable), presented one at time, repeated, then scores are averaged, 4. magnitude estimation: participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli Signal Detection Theory Stevens Power Law: A principle describing the relationship between stimulus magnitude and resulting sensation magnitude, such that the magnitude of subjective sensation is proportional to the stimulus magnitude raised to an exponent S = aIb... S: sensation; I: stimulus intensitymagnitude; b: exponent; a: constant psychophysical theory that quantifies the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of noise cross-modality matching: ability to match intensities of sensations that come from diff sensory modalities (matching sound with light) what influences biases: costs of decisions, probability of events, personality doctrine of specific nerve energies: Muller, nature of a sensation depends on which sensory fibers are stimulated, not how theyre stimulated vitalism: believing that special vital forces drive living organisms Cranial nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that originate in the brain stem and reach the periphery through openings in the skull (roman numerals correspond to order of locations beginning from front of the skull) Olfactory (I) nerves (exclusive sensory info) Optic (II) nerves (exclusive sensory info) Oculomotor (III) nerves (moves the eyes) Trochlear (IV) nerve (moves the eyes) Abducens (VI) nerves (moves the eyes) Auditory (VIII) nerves (exclusive sensory info) Helmholtz invented the ophthalmoscope.... to look at retina, blood vessels, receptors, neurons across back of the eye neural firing is actually electrochemical Chapter 2 Vision light = A wave; a stream of photons, tiny particles that each consist of one quantum of energy the shorter the wave length, the more powerful the wave is light doesnt actually have a colour, it is our brain that assigns it 5 ways: absorbed, diffracted, reflected, transmitted, or refracted oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one particle wave point to another wo causing any permanent desplacement of the medium photon quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation demonstrating
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