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Final Notes.docx

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Dwayne Pare

Chapter 5 nothing to bump them they are remembered The First step is acquisition gaining information and placing primacy effect happens because the first few words are it into memory Then you go through the storage the only words the participant has to remember so phase hold it in memory until the information is they devote enough attention to it through memory needed Finally you go through retrieval locate the rehearsal This means that recency and primacy effects information in the warehouse that is memory and you dont affect each other This was displayed after a delay bring it to active usecounting backward from 201 in units of 3 was inserted Route into Memory between the last word and the time participants are Information processing complex mental events supposed to start reciting This delay affected recency learning remembering and deciding involve a number because its based on working memory that shifted of discrete steps where the output of one step is the focus to delay but not primacy More evidence was input to the next step The model evolved and became found in presenting the list slower this would increase the modal model believes that information processing LTM but not affect working memoryinvolves different kinds of memory There is Closer Look at Working Memory The holding capacity for working memory can beSensory memory holds onto input in raw form Now measure with the digitspan task people listen to a list this theory is removed because it doesnt tell us much of digits and are required to repeat them back The o Iconic for visual inputs maximum number they can repeat back is the digit o Echoic for auditory inputs span usually 7 plus or minus 2 items Miller continuedShortterm memory place you hold information while in saying that these items are instead chunks youre working on it This is now called workingunscientific to show that the meaning of items varies memory to emphasize the function Its no longer a based on individual be words numbers sentences place but a processThe chunking process helps the individual hold moreLongterm memory LTM larger and permanent but its cost is that there is some effort needed to storage area Its now defined as the repository that repackage material This would take away from the has all knowledgebeliefs youre not working onamount of attention originally allocated to rehearsalThe modern idea preserves the idea that there are Now that our concept of working memory changed we differences between working and longterm memory cant only use the digit span task We can use the 1 Working memory is limited LTM is largeroperation span procedure designed to measure 2 Getting information into working memory is easy working memory while its working Operation spans but getting information into LTM is hardervary depending on the operation For reading span for 3 Getting information out of working memory is also example participants are asked to read sentences easier than getting it from LTM slow failaloud If they can remember the last words of the 4 Working memory information is fragile easily lost sentences more sentences are added The limit is the while LTM information is not linked to the current persons working memory capacity WMC Results of focus of your thoughtsWMC are intriguing because the 1 show when its Experiments to show this free recall procedures helpful to have a larger working memory and this participants listen to a list of 30 words and are asked shows how working memory is used 2 WMC seems to to recite them back in any order This experiment be linked with intelligence and 3 these correlations showed that people are likely to show the primacy are measured with a better test the operation spaneffect remember the first few words on the list and The central executive is needed for the work in working the recency effect the last few words are also memory and so the executive makes the decisions But remembered This results in a Ushaped graph of the ndsometimes you dont need all this effort because you serial position place where word is on the list eg 2 might need this information only soon In this case all word The recency effect happens because usually you need is the executive helpersinformation in working memory gets pumped when Entering LongTerm Storage newer information is added Since the last words have There are 2 types of rehearsal sentences were more complex than others If it was o Maintenance Rehearsal simply focus on tobeonly deep processing that mattered then results of remembered items themselves with little thought complex and simple sentences should be the same But about what the items mean or how they relate to they werent Deep and elaborate processing were each otherbetter complex sentences helped more This is o RelationalElaborative Rehearsal thinking about because elaborate processing helps create many more what the toberemembered items mean This is connections ie sensory visual and so create more better in establishing information in memoryretrieval pathsfMRI results show that items that require more brain Organize and Memorize activity during rehearsal also require more brain activity Katona proposed that memorization is helped with in retrieval and are more likely to be rememberedorganization Mnemonic Strategies techniques to Intentional Learning deliberate learning with an improve memory arose expectation that memory will be tested later The simplest is using the first letters of the word into Incidental Learning learning in the absence of any some meaningful structure intention to learn looking at the word and countingUse mental imagery to link items to one another TO number of letters counting number of es or saying if be effective this has to be a mental image where a the word sounded pleasant The incidentallearning pair for example is linked together with the pleasant judgements performed just as good asPegword System associating what you want to the intentional learningremember with the one is a bun rhymeShallow processing engaged in superficial fashion This shows the same thing to remember a list with no which words were in capital letter green red vs apparent organization you impose your organization Deep processing requires thought about what the BUT mnemonics present a tradeoff more attention words mean does it fit in this sentence The effect of focused on 1 or 2 memory connections means less the level of processing shows that deep processing attention spent on other connections that might also retains memory better because more attention is given help Multiple links are more beneficial because 1 The intention to learn is only effective indirectly It foster greater understanding and 2 more connections wont help you perform better all of a sudden but if means more retrieval paths means itll be easieryou have an intention you may have found the way The better system organization of complex materials is that the best thing to do is elaborate rehearsalmore dependent on understanding than using Role of Meaning and Memory Connections mnemonics One way to show this is through The task of learning is not just placing information into correlation of a students grade and what they longterm storage learning also needs to establish remember of the course years later Another is to give important indexing pave a path to the newly acquired participants a passage that can only be understood with information so that it can be retrieved at any time in the a title Those that received a title understood the future Memory retrieval is facilitated by memory passage and remembered it better than the restconnections because these allow one memory to trigger Study of Memory Acquisition another until you find what youre looking for Learning What the memorizer contributes to learning includes is the time to establish such connections So this means their own prior knowledge we make connections but that attention to meaning is what creates these to what To something that we already have knowledge because in thinking about meaning youre thinking ofabout how the word relates to other words makingconnectionsChapter 6 Experiment participants were shown words right Learning as a Preparation for Retrieval before a sentence with a blank and were asked Contextdependent learning learning cues based on whether that word could fit there Towards the end the the environment youre in are likely to help you retrieve participants were asked to list all the words Also some them more efficiently later on however its not the
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