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psyb57 quiz 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Which of the following findings does NOT support the existence of task-specific mental resources? 1. a) It is more difficult to combine two verbal tasks than one verbal task and one spatial task. 2. b) Listening to spoken words and having a quick motor response to visual input are easy to do simultaneously because they do not rely on the same resources. 3. c) Listening to two sets of words simultaneously is harder than listening to one set while reading another. d) Two simple tasks are easy to do simultaneously, while two hard tasks are not. 2 Patients with unilateral neglect resulting from damage to the right hemisphere will 4. a) fail to perceive anything in the right visual field. 5. b) disengage from a visual stimulus as it moves from the left to right visual field. 6. c) read only the right half of words shown to them. d) only complete half of everything they set out to do. 3 Expectation-based priming suggests that 7. a) even when a misleading cue is ignored, it is costly. 8. b) the perceptual system gives input to, but does not receive output from, higher brain areas. 9. c) perception works within a limited-capacity system. d) visual perception works like a searchlight. 4 Evidence suggests that 10. a) unattended stimuli are more fully processed if the attended input is particularly complex. 11. b) unattended stimuli are more fully processed if the attended input is particularly simple. 12. c) early brain activity in response to attended input is indistinguishable from brain activity for unattended input. d) unattended stimuli are processed fully and make it into consciousness, but they are not remembered. 5 Which of the following statements applies to expectation-based priming but not to stimulus-based priming? 13. a) It has an immediate effect on attention. 14. b) It has a cost attached. 15. c) It leads to faster recognition of subsequent related stimuli. d) It is bottom-up. 6 You are at a cocktail party conversing with a friend. In this situation, you are LEAST likely to hear 16. a) whether the person behind you is speaking intelligently or foolishly. 17. b) whether it is a man or a woman standing behind you talking. 18. c) whether the couple beside you are talking about a movie you just saw and loved. d) whether there is music in the background. 7 Participants are asked to report the shape of a visual stimulus that appears on the left side of a screen. Simultaneous with the presentation of this target stimulus, a second visual stimulus is flashed on the screen. Based on our understanding of inattentional blindness, which of the following is NOT sufficient to make the participants notice the second stimulus? 19. a) Participants are told beforehand where, but not when, the second stimulus will appear. 20. b) Participants are told beforehand only that something else might appear. 21. c) Participants’ attention is directed to the place where the second stimulus appears. 22. d) Participants’ eyes are oriented toward the place where the second stimulus appears. 8 What do patients suffering from unilateral-neglect syndrome demonstrate about visual attention? 23. a) People have both space-based and object-based attention. 24. b) If the brain is damaged a certain way, the focus of attention cannot move into a previously ignored visual space. 25. c) We primarily pay attention to objects and are only loosely guided by location in space. d) The brain damage in unilateral-neglect patients makes them noncomparable to people with healthy brains. 9 Some resources are task specific and others are task general. Which of the following is a task-specific resource? 26. a) a response selector when the task involves launching successive steps 27. b) an energy supply needed for mental tasks 28. c) verbal resources for tasks involving words d) executive control to override habitual responses 10 Individuals with greater working-memory capacity will tend to show advantages over those with smaller working-memory capacity EXCEPT when 29. a) completing the Stroop task. 30. b) initiating routinized, automatic tasks. 31. c) taking the verbal section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). d) inhibiting automatized responses. 11 In one experiment, participants were shown a stimulus preceded by a neutral cue, a correct prime, or a misleading prime. For some participants, the primes were usually correct (high validity), and for others they were usually misleading (low validity). Which of the following was NOT a result of this experiment? 32. a) Participants in the high-validity condition showed no difference between neutral and mislead trials, demonstrating that there is no cost of priming. 33. b) Participants responded faster in the primed low-validity condition than in the neutral condition, demonstrating repetition priming. 34. c) Participants responded faster in the primed high-validity condition than in the primed low-validity condition, demonstrating that expectation influences priming. 35. d) Performance in the misled condition differed between high- and low-validity conditions, demonstrating that the expectation-based priming, but not repetition priming, has a cost. 12 Reading simple words is an example of a(n) ______­ task, and saying the color of the ink in which that word is printed is an example of a(n) _______ task. 36. a) automatic; controlled 37. b) automatic; interference 38. c) controlled; automatic d) controlled; interference 13 Which of the following is a failure of selective attention? 39. a) You are in the basement ironing and you hear the phone unexpectedly ringing upstairs. 40. b) You are able to talk on the cell phone while driving. 41. c) While you are working on your problem set in the living room, you are thrown off track when your sister changes the TV channel. d) W
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