Which of the following findings does NOT support the existence of
task-specific mental resources?
1. a) It is more difficult to combine two verbal tasks than one
verbal task and one spatial task.
2. b) Listening to spoken words and having a quick motor
response to visual input are easy to do simultaneously
because they do not rely on the same resources.
3. c) Listening to two sets of words simultaneously is harder
than listening to one set while reading another.
d) Two simple tasks are easy to do simultaneously, while two hard
tasks are not.
Patients with unilateral neglect resulting from damage to the right
4. a) fail to perceive anything in the right visual field.
5. b) disengage from a visual stimulus as it moves from the
left to right visual field.
6. c) read only the right half of words shown to them.
d) only complete half of everything they set out to do.
Expectation-based priming suggests that
7. a) even when a misleading cue is ignored, it is costly.
8. b) the perceptual system gives input to, but does not receive
output from, higher brain areas.
9. c) perception works within a limited-capacity system.
d) visual perception works like a searchlight. 4
Evidence suggests that
10. a) unattended stimuli are more fully processed if the
attended input is particularly complex.
11. b) unattended stimuli are more fully processed if the
attended input is particularly simple.
12. c) early brain activity in response to attended input is
indistinguishable from brain activity for unattended input.
d) unattended stimuli are processed fully and make it into
consciousness, but they are not remembered.
Which of the following statements applies to expectation-based
priming but not to stimulus-based priming?
13. a) It has an immediate effect on attention.
14. b) It has a cost attached.
15. c) It leads to faster recognition of subsequent related
d) It is bottom-up. 6
You are at a cocktail party conversing with a friend. In this situation,
you are LEAST likely to hear
16. a) whether the person behind you is speaking intelligently
17. b) whether it is a man or a woman standing behind you
18. c) whether the couple beside you are talking about a movie
you just saw and loved.
d) whether there is music in the background.
Participants are asked to report the shape of a visual stimulus that appears on the left side of a
screen. Simultaneous with the presentation of this target stimulus, a second visual stimulus is
flashed on the screen. Based on our understanding of inattentional blindness, which of the
following is NOT sufficient to make the participants notice the second stimulus?
19. a) Participants are told beforehand where, but not when, the second stimulus will appear.
20. b) Participants are told beforehand only that something else might appear.
21. c) Participants’ attention is directed to the place where the second stimulus appears.
22. d) Participants’ eyes are oriented toward the place where the second stimulus appears. 8
What do patients suffering from unilateral-neglect syndrome
demonstrate about visual attention?
23. a) People have both space-based and object-based
24. b) If the brain is damaged a certain way, the focus of
attention cannot move into a previously ignored visual space.
25. c) We primarily pay attention to objects and are only loosely
guided by location in space.
d) The brain damage in unilateral-neglect patients makes them
noncomparable to people with healthy brains.
Some resources are task specific and others are task general. Which
of the following is a task-specific resource?
26. a) a response selector when the task involves launching
27. b) an energy supply needed for mental tasks
28. c) verbal resources for tasks involving words
d) executive control to override habitual responses
Individuals with greater working-memory capacity will tend to show
advantages over those with smaller working-memory capacity
29. a) completing the Stroop task.
30. b) initiating routinized, automatic tasks.
31. c) taking the verbal section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT).
d) inhibiting automatized responses.
In one experiment, participants were shown a stimulus preceded by a neutral cue, a correct prime,
or a misleading prime. For some participants, the primes were usually correct (high validity), and
for others they were usually misleading (low validity). Which of the following was NOT a result of
32. a) Participants in the high-validity condition showed no difference between neutral and
mislead trials, demonstrating that there is no cost of priming.
33. b) Participants responded faster in the primed low-validity condition than in the neutral
condition, demonstrating repetition priming.
34. c) Participants responded faster in the primed high-validity condition than in the primed
low-validity condition, demonstrating that expectation influences priming.
35. d) Performance in the misled condition differed between high- and low-validity conditions,
demonstrating that the expectation-based priming, but not repetition priming, has a cost.
Reading simple words is an example of a(n) ______ task, and saying
the color of the ink in which that word is printed is an example of
a(n) _______ task.
36. a) automatic; controlled
37. b) automatic; interference
38. c) controlled; automatic
d) controlled; interference 13
Which of the following is a failure of selective attention?
39. a) You are in the basement ironing and you hear the phone
unexpectedly ringing upstairs.
40. b) You are able to talk on the cell phone while driving.
41. c) While you are working on your problem set in the living
room, you are thrown off track when your sister changes the