chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

Chapter 1 The Science of the MindCognitive psychology first understood as the scientific study of knowledgeCognitive psychology is roughly 50 years oldHM memory loss brought on by brain surgery Could not remember any events that happened after the operationWundt and Tichener psychology needs to be concerned with the study of conscious mental eventsIntrospect to observe and record the content of our own mental lives and the sequence of our own experiencesBehaviours learning history and stimuli are objective dataBeliefs wishes goals and expectations are not objective datathBehaviourism took over America in the first half of the 20 centuryBehaviourism is concerned with how our behaviour changes in response to different configurations of stimuliKant transcendental method inference to best explanation begin with the observable facts and work backwards from these observationsWorking memory the memory you use for information that you are actively working on Holds information in an easily accessible form so that the information is instantly available when you need itWorking memory has a small capacitySpan test read someone a list of four items The person has to report these back immediately in sequence Try again with more items until the person makes an errorMost peoples letter span is about seven or eightWorkingmemory systemAt the heart of the system is the central executiveWorking memory system diagram page 16Rehearsal loop functionCentral executive identifies the numbersShuffles them off to storage so not burdenedSubvocalization pronounce the numbersSubvocalization produces a representation of these numbers in the phonological buffer auditory imageConcurrent articulation taking a span test while repeating a syllableConcurrent articulation diagram page 18The mechanisms needed for subvocal speech overlap with those needed for overt speech If they are in use for overt speech they block the availability for subvocal speechConcurrent articulation cuts memory span Usually 7 items with concurrent articulation drops to three or fourWe can test peoples memory spans by using complex visual shapesUnfamiliar shapes cannot be rehearsed subvocallyCognitive neuroscience the study of the biological basis for cognitive functioningAnarthria cannot produce speech
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