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chapter notes and highlights for memory and cog midterm

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George Scott

y Thalamusswitching stationsensory organs send fibers to thalamus and I sends fibers throughough the brain o Pulvinar nucleus in thalamus is involved in focusing attention o Thalamus is also imp in regulating sleep y Hypothalamus 0 controls bodily functions ie maintaining bp and tempy Hippocampuslocated at the anterior of the temporal lobes Enters new info in memoryit governs processes that allow memory to be stored elsewhere in the brainy Amygdalanext to the hippocampus because it is central to production of behaviors that express emotions esp fear It modulates the function of the hippocampus by heping you store vivid memories of emotional info o Amygdala and hippocampus connect CNS to PNStheyre both imp for flight or fight responses y Limbic systemanygdala and hippocampus y Basal gangliaallows us to plan movement and develop habits o Nucleus accumbenslocated near the basal ganglia and sometimes a part of it is essential in learningits used in developing a behavior ie if interviewer smiles at you when you make eye contact youll make eye contact more oftenIt signals other areas of brain when reward occurs y Brainstemat the base of brain and containts structures that receive info to and from spinal cordAssociated with sleep regulation o Their neurons produce neuromodulatorsy Ponsconnects brainstem to cerebellumcontrols performance ie sleep and facial expressions y Cerebellimphysical coordination and involved in attention and estimation of tme Same surface area as cerebral cortex y Artificial intelligencecomputers are programmed to perform cognitive tasks y Dissociationan activity affects the performance of one task and not anotherie atriculatory verbal memory and visual spatial memory y Double dissociationan activity affects one process but not another and a second activity has the reverse properties y Associationeffects of activity on one task are accompanied by effects on another task o Brain damage leads to memory loss as well as the inability to form mental images of faces y Behavorial methodmeasures directly observable behaviorie time to respond o Limited by ceilingfloor effects and speed accuracy trade off the faster you jump the gun the less accurate your results are y Beh methods are prone to problems with o Experimental expectancy effectsparticipants figure out what their task is and the results are skewed o Task demandsparticipants think theyre supposed to respond a certain wayie mental imagery scanning o Structure process trade off y famous methods used in cog psych are o Event related potentials ERP o Positron emission tompgraphy PET o Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI y MEG is a variant of erp and relies on electrical fieldsthis gives good spatial resolution and detects activities in sulci and not gyri o Has amazing temporal resolution o Its not invasive but really expensive y PET takes O15 isotope and when brain activity occurs it draws more blood which carries O15 to the part of brain activated o Its invasive o It has poor temporal resolution takes 40 seconds for image to appear o Its expensive y MRI relies on magnetic resonance o First used to see brain structure ie musicians have a larger M1 that controls their left hands o Uses magnetic fields to alter orientation of specific atoms in a substancethen the pulse of waves disorients the atoms and gives of detectable signals when they return to normalthe current is recorded and used to create an image o Its good spatial temporal resolutionnon invasive but expensive o BOLDFMRImost common techniqueblood oxygenation level dependentdesigned to reveal where oxygenated blood cells pile up which shows which brain area is activated y Fmri has good spatial and structural resolution and is non invasive o But its expensive loud and uncomfortable for participants y Drawbacks for neuroimaging techniquescant tell diff between results caused by excitatory or inhibitory activity y More activation doesnt mean more processing y Same functional area can lie in slightly diff anatomical regions in diff brains y Brain is always on during sleep toowe dont know what processing takes place during test or baseline y If no diff in activation bet two tasks is found in a brain area it can mean that the process was active in both or neitherof the area is active in both conditions then the diff in blood flow bet them may not reflect the diff in processing y Processes arent necessarily in two diff neural tissuesame neurons have diff functions y TMStemporarily disrupts a part of a brain area to see what its function wasdoes this by coil on head and current running through it o Single pulse versionpulse is delivered a bit after stumulus is presentedused to discover the duration of particular process o Repetitive TMSseries of magnetic pulses delivered to brain area before task is performedie tms delivered to brocas area makes it diffcult to produce speech o Drawbackseffect of one area stimulation can stimulate other areas and can produce ceisures affects only the cortex uncomfortable y Cog psych relies on process modelsspecifies a sequence of processes that convert an input to an putput o Internal processes arent specified o Used to predict patterns of brain deficit o Drawbacksassume serial processing feedback goes in a sequence in that if the first task is complete only then a second startsnot like this in brain they dont learn which shapes our mental activity
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