Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

Chapter 8 Associative Theories of LongTerm Memory THE NETWORK NOTIONMemory connections provide more than just retrieval paths connections are our memories How Might the Network WorkNeed means of representing individual ideas Nodes o Nodes tied together by connections associations or associative links o Nodes similar to cities on a map associations are highways between cities learning can be thought of as building highways between 2 citiesSearch through memory begins at one node and travels via connections until target info found o Not all associations are of equal strengthThere are superhighways and country roads can go from one city to another via intermediate roads when there is not a direct road connecting the two citiesSome active intellectual engagement needed to create or strengthen connections nature of event crucial and thinking about it in a distinctive way helps strengthen Spreading ActivationNodes receive activation from their neighbors as more and more activation arrives at a specific node the activation level for the node increaseso Activation level eventually reaches nodes response threshold node fires o Results in node becoming a source of activation activating neighboring nodes Finding node within networkActivation levels below response Subthreshold activation can accumulate so that inputs may add together or summate to bring node to thresholdLike previously discussed nodes that have recently fired can be thought of as warmed upActivation spreads from starting point from all directions do not get to choose where it goes however not all pathways are equal in their efficiency to carry activationdue to recent or frequent use analogous to interconnected hoses carrying fuel EVIDENCE FAVORING THE NETWORK APPROACH HintsWhen asked for example what the capitol of south Dakota is hints help us o connection between south Dakota and its capitol may not be strong o hint allows for another node to become activated simultaneously with the south Dakota node
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