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term test 2 study guide

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Gabriela Ilie

COGNITION TERM TEST 2 CHPT 7 Concepts and Categorization Theoretical Descriptions of the Nature of Concepts The Classical View The Prototype View The Exemplar View The Schemata View The Knowledge-Based View Forming New Concepts and Classifying New Instances Concept Attainment Strategies Acquiring Prototypes Acquiring Concepts in the Brain Implicit Concept Learning Using and Forming Scripts Psychological Essentialism - Medin concepts and categories serve as building blocks for human thought and behaviour - Lamberts + Shanks argued that the issue of how things such as concepts are mentally represented is a central concern of cognitive psychology - Concept An idea that includes all that is characteristically associated with it it is a mental representation of some objects, event, or pattern that has stored in it much of the knowledge typically thought relevant to that object, event, or pattern. Ex concept of dog, 4 legs, barks, and has a tail. - Category a class of similar things (objects or entities) that share one of two things: either an essential core, or some similarity in perceptual, biological, or functional properties. Ex- 20 questions game; first question. - Concepts are described as the mental representations of categories. - Smith + Medin elaborated on the important role concepts play in our mental life: o Without concepts, mental life would be chaotic. If we perceived each entitity as unique we would be overwhelmed by the sheer diversity of what we experience and unable to remember more than a minute fraction of what we encounter. And if each individual entity needed a distinct name, our language would be staggeringly complex and communication wirtually impossible. Fortunately we perceive and remember each object or event as an instance of a class or concept that awe already know something about. - Keep in mind that we are focusing on concepts of objects and nouns. We will also see that the kind of concept studied may affect the concept theories that are subsequently created. Theoretical Descriptions of the Nature of Concepts: (1) The Classical View a. Domiant view up until the 1970s b. Dates back to Aristotle c. Organized around the belief that all examples or instances of a concept share fundamental characteristics, or features. d. Holds that the features represented are individually necessary and collectively sufficient. i. Individually necessary is to say that each example must have the feature if it is to be regarded as a member of the concept. ii. Collectively sufficient is to say that anything with each feature in the set is automatically an instance of the concept.
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