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Gabriela Ilie

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CHAPTER 1 John Stern defined the work of psychophysiology It is equally tenable to manipulate physiological variables and examine behavioural changes. Subset of people who study this now known as biological psychologists, psychobiologists, or behavioural neuroscientists. Most psychophysiologists study the responses of humans rather than nonhuman animals; therefore, such researchers must limit their techniques of data collection to the surface recording of bioelectric signals. Electrodes are attached to the skin over the organ of interest. Do not greatly interfere with normal behaviour. Because the recordings are from the surface of the brain, psychophysiologists must sacrifice some degree of immediate biological actitude. Researchers can simply ask the patient to describe how they feel instead of making assumptions about their feelings state based on observable behaviour. Short and Long History Began in the 1950s R.C. Davis and a group composed of other psychologists met informally in 1960 they organized the Society for Psychophysiological Research, with Chester Darrow as the President. Albert Ax began a newsletter which developed into the Journal Psychophysiology. GSR was the first type of measurement used, whereas brain-recording articles were non-existent in the first issue of the Journal. Past Early Greeks Plato suggested tripartite organization rational faculties were located in the head, passions were said to be located in the spinal marrow, which related them to the heart. The instincts, or lower appetites, were said to be located in the spinal cord. Because of his belief that our senses deceive us, Plato rejected the idea of experimentation and placed pure thought above empirical observation as the means to achieve knowledge. Chinese medicine also rejected dissection and relied on more holistic concepts of human physiology and functioning. Renaissance Mesulam + Perry (1972) have shown there was considerable empirical sophistication in the writings of Erasistratos, Galen, and Ibn Sina. Erasistratos a physician story of how his son fell in love with his step mother and almost died out of misery because he couldnt be with her this was depicted as a problem of the mind that influenced the body. o This is the beginning of stimulus-response specificity. Galen father of modern physiology, also a physician reported a similar case of lovesickness. o Based on irregular pulse when lover was present. Ibn Sina psychophysiological principles he utilized the method of elevated pulse rate to determine the person with whom one was in love. Electrical Properties of the Skin Luigi Galvani demonstration that animals produce electricity that originates within the organism itself. o One theory suggested that diseases could be diagnosed by measuring changes in the distribution of electrical current in the body. o Second theory stated that there was a connection between electricity, animal magnetism, suggestibility, and hysteria. o Transfert by Charcot , was the movement through utilization of a magnet hysterical symptoms were transferred from side to side of the body. Vigouroux may have provided us with the first documentation of the habituation of skin resistance, that is, the diminution of a response to repeated stimulation. Fere performed research that utilized hand dynamometer. o Trying to find some measure of excitation in the nervous system. o Current applied to the anterior surface of the forearm www.notesolution.com Mueller, Veraguth, and Jung helped bring international attention to the study of skin resistance. o Mueller observed that changes in skin resistance appeared to correlate with changes in psychological state. o Connection between Mueller + Veraguth found a new reflex, sensitive to emotional factors. o Jung (1907) combined the measure of skin resistance with a word-association procedure. 100 words were said to participant who was told to answer as quickly as possible with another word. Concluded that skin resistance responses were related to attention to the stimulus and the ability to associate it with previous occurrences, either conscious or unconscious. Physical stimuli elicit a greater response that psychological ones greater in normal populations compared to pathological ones. Instrumentation 1 instrument capable of reproducing a continuous record of rapidly changing bioelectrical event was the capillary electrometer developed in the 1870s by Marey o Tube filled with sulfuric acid and mercury electrical activity would change the shape of the mercury meniscus, which would form the basis for recording. o Recorded and displayed the electrical activity of a frogs heart o 1887 Waller first recorded electrical activity from the human heart using electrodes on the skin. String Galvanometer Einthoven father of electrocardiography o Developed in the 1900s, but finalized in 1940. 1929 Berger first human electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG related to eye opening, large scale stimuli, and mental activity and attention IC and PC integrated circuit and Personalized Computer have both caused the rapid increase in the field of psychophysiological instrumentation CHAPTER 4 3 types of activity: 1. Spontaneous 2. Tonic (background); and; 3. Phasic (evoked responses) (1) Spontaneous o Same as a response to a known stimulus such as a tone, a shock, or a snake. It may take the form of a change in the heart rate or skin conductance in the palm of the hand, muscle potential, and so on. o In reality, spontaneous activity is a change in physiological activity that occurs in the absence of any known stimuli. o Of interest? BC important to be aware of these responses to avoid misinterpretation. (2) Tonic o Referred to as the background level or resting level of activity of a particular physiological measure. o Tonic level is simply the level of activity of some ANS or CNS measure at a particular point in time prior to stimulation. o Interest? BC in its own right is a measure of activity without stimulus hypertension for example has different resting potentials. nd 2 reason some cases the size of a response to a specific stimulus depends upon the tonic level as measured immediately prior to the stimulus. (3) Phasic o Discrete response to a specific stimulus an evoked response. o The most important factor to consider when quantifying phasic activity is that the subjects response to, for example, a slide of an American flag is not being made against a background of zero activity. The subject is constantly responding to internal as well as external stimuli somatic responses abound. www.notesolution.com
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