Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture Notes

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Janelle Leboutillier

Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 1 online quizzes in introduction lecture biological psychology as an interdisciplinary field biological psychologybranch of psychology that studies the biological foundation of behaviour emotions and mental processes draws on techniques and theories from psychology biology physiology biochemistry the neurosciences and related fields how biological psychology relates to other fields of studyHistorical Highlights in Biological Psychology trephinationdrill hole in skull to allow demons to escape reflex according to Descarteswhen nerves are exposed to the stimulation the pain would travel up into the brain and causes pores in brain to open up and animal spirits would escape phrenologydifferent parts of personality might be laid out on brainFact of Fiction fact some human nerve cells are 3 feet long ie brain to feet false nerve impulses travel at the speed of light true more people die each year from use of legal drugs than illegal ones false only humans ingest mindaltering substances ie elephants eating fermented fruit true our bodies make chemical that are similar in structure to heroin and marijuana and act on the same sites in the brain false testosterone is made only by males and estrogen is only made by female false only humans have created culture false once our brain are developed we can never grow new nerve cellsnot growing new nerve cells per say but using other onesneurogenesis in the hippocampus and limbic system false dogs are colourblind true each side of the brain controls the muscles on the opposite side o the body false there are no anatomical differences between mens and womens brains ie spatial navigation is less in women true in some animal species every individual is female and in some other species change gender in their life time uncertain some people are born gay true most of our energy is expended just maintaining our body temperature false we can lose weight permanently by surgically removing fat from our bodies false sleep walkers are acting out dreams false prolonged sleep deprivation will make you temporarily crazyit will actually kill you true some animal can have half their brain asleep and the other awake true the left side of the face is more emotionally expressive than the right side true prolonged stress can cause heart disease uncertain all cultural recognize the same facial expression for various emotions true scientists dont know why antidepressants work uncertain we never really forget anything we have experienced false each memory is stored in its own brain cells true we can change the structure of an animals brain by raising it in a more stimulating environmentResearch Methods in Biological Psychology histologythe study of microscopic structure and tissuesprovides means of observing structure organization and connections of individual cellsmicrotome machine and specialized stains autopsyexamination of body after deathcorrelational method not causation that must be interpreted carefully and precisely st1 pictureGolgi used silver nitrate and osmium nitrate to stain black cell only occurs in 17001400 cells nd 2 picturemissile stain six distinctive layersdarker layermore cells rd 3 picture black ringmyelin cell horseradish peroxidase provides a method for identifying neural pathwaysimagingcan watch living brain as it behavestype of imaging technologies computerized tomography CTan imaging technique in which computers are used to enhance Xray images positron emission tomography PETPET scans show a clear picture of brain activity but not much structural detail red and yellow are most activebut cant see too much structure of brain magnetic resonance imaging MRIimaging technique that provides very high resolution of structural images see Figure 113functional MRIassesses activity of the brain recordingrecording electrical and magnetic output from the brainelectroencephalogram EEG provides information about the relative activity of large groups of neurons close to the surface specialized use of EEG technology representing the brains response to environmental stimuli can use EEG to predict Alzheimers Disease using new computer software that analyzes EEG data psychiatrists can now better distinguish early signs of Alzheimers from normal aging by spotting marked differences between the left and right sides of the brainmagnetoencephalography MEG measures the brains tiny magnetic outputsinglecell recordings allows researchers to observe the responses of the individual neurons brain stimulation artificially stimulating areas of the brain with electicity or magnetism and watching for resulting behaviour can be applied during neurosurgery transcranial magnetic stimulation most stimulation research has been conducted with laboratory lesion see Figure 117injury to neural tissue naturallyoccurring deliberately produced biochemical methods use of chemical stimulation and microdialysiscan be challenging because bloodbrain barrier prevents some chemicals from entering brain genetic methodstwin studiesadoption studiesstudies of geneticallymodified animals stem cellsundifferentiated cells that can divide and differentiate into other cell typesResearch Ethics mechanisms for protection of human participants and animal research subjectsfederal government and the Common RuleUniversity review and institutional review boardspublication process and review human participant guidelinescoercion of research participants is unacceptablebenefits to participants should not be excessive or inappropriateparticipants must be informed that they can leave without penalty at any time participants must be told enough about the experiment to make an informed decision about participating participants must receive contact information in case they have questions participants must be assured their data will be confidential animal subjects guidelinesnecessity of researchbasic care and housingexperimental procedures should cause as little pain and distress as possible emerging issues in research ethicsethics of research on the internetethics of stem cell research Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 Anatomical Directions planes of reference
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