Physiological Psychology Final Exam Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

1Physiological Psychology Final Exam Notes CHAPTER 10 SEXUAL BEHAVIOR SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT BeforeAristotle sex of childtemperature of semen at the same time of conception hot males cool females Today begins wsex chromosomes from two parents The human genome 23 chromosomes first 22 are the same chromosome 23 differentiates males and females Mom provide X chromosome to ALL offspring Dad determine offspring sex by providing either another X produce female or a Y male fetus is undifferentiated in sex wo male hormone babies would be born w outward female physical appearance AND female behaviorSexual chromosome abnormalities Turner Syndrome caused by X0 genotype normal female external genitalia but ovaries develop abnormally normal intelligence deficits in spatial relationships and memory tells us women are not as good at it as meneven worse with this condition infertile if COMPLETELY missing second chrom fertile if have X in some ndbut not all cellsif only portion of 2 is missing 1 in 2500 live births Klinefelter syndrome XXY male w reduced fertility require horomone treatment at puberty to develop secondary sexcharacteristics and inhibit female characteristics normal intelligence but social awkwardness delayed verbal skills occurs in 1500 to 1000 aka 179 out of 1000 male births XYY substle physical and behavioral correlates controversial association w antisocial behavior ppl with xyy assoc w antisocial behavior 11000male births STAGES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Gonads internal organs testesmales ovariesfemales External genitalia penismales clitoris females 1 Development of Gonads 6 weeks primordial gonads developed but undifferentiated in malefm 8 weeks sexdetermining reg of the Y chrom SRY expressed in males which releases testisdeterminding factor a protein to develop testeslack of SRY so alternate genes make ovaries Before 3 month both have Wolffian seminal prostate in malesMullerian uterus fallopian tubes 2 Development of Internal Structures During 3 month912 weeks male testosterone develop of wolfantimullerian degeneration of mull femaleno additional hormone Wolffian is nonfunctional 3 Development of External Structures 5alphareductase converts testosterone to 5alphadihydro masculinizes external structure into penis 2Abnormalities Androgen insensitivity syndrome AIS male lack androgen testosterone leads to female external gentials female identitybehavior Congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH fetus male OR female exposed to abnormal high androgen leads to masculine genitalbehavior5alphareduc deficiency no male genital but has secondary sex characteristics at puberty looks female but acts male Social Influences in Gender Development video we disagree w the video that social influences dont change much Prof brought her sons to a neutral daycare but automatically boys went to play with the trucks HOROMONES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR1840s women reach puberty at 15 yr 2000 girls at 12why because obesity food additives synthesis of estrogen and testosterone start with cholesterol cholesterol w progesterone to convert to testosterone and cholesterol w areomates converts to estradiolHypothalamic control of the pituitary gland hypothalamus horomones causes changes in pituitary gland outside of base of brain hypo releases GNRH releasing horomones affects pituitary glands and releases LH and FSH LH goes to testes and releases testosterone and TOGETHER testosterone with FSH releases sperm LH and FSH is menstrual cycle hypothalamus in pre optic area pituitary mid brain hippo in rodent estradiol sensitive neurons sensitive to estrogen found in both male and female testosterone males 300900 nanogramsdl of blood females less than 100 estrogen males less than 50 picogramsml blood females 100400 fruit flies both male and female have physically same senses but internally may be differentSex Horomones and Female Behavior report slightly more interest around ovulation testosterone has greatest impact on womens sexuality best scores on spatial abilities tests when testosterone levels high and worst when estrogen levels are high best scores on verbal and manual dexterity tests when estrogen levels are high morris water maze female rats perform better when estrogen levels low and testosterone high bc of their frequent estrus cycle HRT horomone replacement therapy women not automatically placed on HRT bc bad side effects like stroke heart attacksnot first choice treatment
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