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Psychological Physiology Mid Term.docx

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Janelle Leboutillier

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1BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY MID TERM CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Biological Psychology as an interdisciplinary Field Biologically psychologybranch of psychology in which biological foundations ofbehaviour emotions and mental processes are studiedHistorical Highlights in Biological Psychology Trephining trepanation brain surgery 7000 years ago by drilling holes in the skullEdwin Smith Surgical Papyrus the oldest medical writing in historydid not consider the brain to be importantHippocrates the brain was the source of intelligence and correctly identified epilepsy as originating in the brainAristotle heart was the source ofintellect whereas Herophilus father of anatomy believed that the ventricles played this important roleDescartes mind body dualismthe body is mechanistic whereas the mind is separate and nonphysical Phrenologyskull contours indicate personality and character traitsBiological psychology is based on monismthe mind is viewed as the product of the activity in the brain and nervous systemResearch Methods In Biological Psychology Histologyrefers to the study of microscopic structures and tissues and provide means for observing the structure of individual cellsfirst step fix the tissue either by freezing it or by treating it with formalinthen sliced by microtome which works like a mini meat slicerGolgi silver staindetailed analysis of a small number of single cellsNissl stainyou want to identify clusters of cell bodiesA myelin stainfollow pathways carrying information from one part of the brain to anotherHorseradishh peroxidisepathway ends and want to discover its originAutopsy examination of the body following death This is a correlational method and must be interpreted carefully and precisely Imaging Computerized Tomography CTxray images Provides excellent structural information but cannot distinguish between a living or dead cell which aka no info activity levels in the brain Positron Emission Tomography PETobserve brain activitycombine radioactive tracers with a wide variety of molecules like oxygen water and drugs Gamma ray resulting from the breakdown of the tracer is recorded by detectors and fed to a computer in which the data constructs an image Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRIuses powerful magnets to align hydrogen atoms within a magnetic field Then radio frequencies are directed at the part of the body to be imagedfMRI assess brain activity by variations in blood flow on a particular area will reflect 2this needBOLD effect Hemoglobin has different magnetic properties when combined with oxygen or not and signals from a voxel will change depending on the oxygenation of the blood in that areathe blood oxygenation level dependent effectMRI is better than CT and PETfMRI is also better than PET scansRecording The electroencephalogram EEGmeasure the activity of a large number of cells aka field potentialsEvoked potentialsallows researchers to correlate the activity of cortical sensory neurons recorded through scalp electrodes with stimuli presented to the participantERPaverage of 100 or more EEG recordings Magnetoencephalography MEGrecord the brains magnetic activityThe skull bones and tissues allow magnetism to pass through so its better than EEG Single cell recordings both extracellular and intracellular events from a single neuron can be assessed using tiny mircoelectrodes surgically implanted in the area of interestBrain stimulation done on animals rather than on humansRepeated transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS applying a magnetic pulse through a wire placed on the scalp can inhibit or disinhibit certain behaviours temporary Lesioninjury to neural tissue and can either be naturally occurring or purposefully produced primary purpose to assess function of area Ablationlarge areas of brain tissue are surgically removed Chemically produced lesions have the advantage of harming only the cell bodiesBiochemical Methods chemicals directly administered to the brain through micropipettes Microdialysissmall amounts of fluid are filtered from the area of the brain to identify which neurochemicals are active in a preciselocationGenetic Methods Monozygotic have an identical set of genes fraternal twins have 50 percent of their genes in common just like any other siblings Heritabilitythe amount that a trait varies in a population due to genetics is still influenced by the environment Studies of genetically modified animalsknockout genes takes the place of the normal genes but fail to produce the specific proteinStem cells good to repair brain and spinal cord from three sources adult stem cells stem cells from umbilical cord blood and embryonic stem cells Research Ethics Emerging issues in research ethics
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