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Janelle Leboutillier

PSYB64: Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 11: Neurological Disorders (Chapter 15) Not Responsible for:  Seizures and Epilepsy Pg 436 - 438  Brain infections Pg 440 - 446 Overview  Brain Damage  Multiple Sclerosis  Migraines  Assessment, Recovery and Therapy Brain Damage  Stroke o Brain’s blood supply is interrupted by either bleeding or sudden blockage  Cerebral hemorrhage  May result from aneurysms, hypertension, structural deficits in blood vessels serving the brain, exposure to toxic chemicals etc o Local blood filled swellings o Can be hereditary, caused by disease  Hyper-tenstion  Structural deficits in blood vessels serving the brain  Exposure to toxic chemicals, etc.  Ischemia  Blockage of blood vessels results in low oxygen levels o Thrombosis is plug of blood that blocks blood vessels without moving o Embolism is a plug that travels until it lodges in a smaller blood vessel  TIA (transient ischemic attack) episodes of stroke symptoms lasting less than 24 hours  Hippocampus and middle layers of cortex most vulnerable to ischemic attacks o Excitotoxicity  Ability of excess glutamate to kill cells  Cell death following many strokes is largely caused by excess glutamate activity triggered by disruptions in oxygen What are the Risk Factors for Stroke?  Age  Hypertensions  Smoking  Diabetes  High cholesterol  Use of alcohol, amphetamines, other drugs  Arteriosclerosis  Obesity The Brain’s Blood Supply (Figure 15.2)  Due to the brain’s enormous need for oxygen, it is supplied by a rich network of blood vessels. Interruptions to this supply produce rapid changes in brain function and, potentially, infarct and death. Brain Infarct (Figure 15.3)  Which region of the brain is damaged?  When an area of the brain is deprived of oxygen for a sufficient amount of time, cells begin to die  The area of dead tissue is referred to as an infarct.  In this image the patient suffered a fatal infarct in the right frontal lobe  Although some cells die immediately following a stroke, prompt medical attention can save cells in the ischemic penumbra, the area immediately surrounding the infarct Brain Damage  Head Injury  Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) o Open head injuries o Concussions  Coup and countercoup  Post concussion syndrome – lack of concentration, reduction in processing speed, deficits in higher-order cognitive functions Coup and Countercoup (Figure 15.4)  In concussions, the coup, shown here in blue, is an injury that occurs at the site of the blow  When the blow pushes the brain in the opposite direction, a second area of injury occurs, known as the countercoup, shown here in red. Boxers Risk Repeated Head Injuries (Figure 15.5)  Chronic Traumatic Brain Injuries (CTBI) o Dementia pugilistica (Boxer’s syndrome) o Typically associated with slurred speech, memory impairment, personality changes, coordination problems o Boxer Jerry Quarry, shown on the left fighting Muhammad Ali, developed chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI) as a result of repeated concussions. Quick Diagnosis of Concussion (Video) Brain Damage  Brain Tumors o Majority ari
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