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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

PSYB64: Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 10: Emotion, Aggression, and Stress (Chapter 14) Overview  Emotions o Theories of Emotion o Biological Correlates of Emotion  Aggression o Genetics and Aggression o Brain structures and aggression o Biochemistry and aggression  Stress o Physical and Psychological Responses to Stress o Stress, The Immune System, and Health Emotions  Emotions are difficult to study? o Why? o Include range of: 1. Observable behaviours 2. Expressed feelings 3. Changes in body states  The Evolution of Emotion o Adaptive advantage of emotions for our ancestors: 1. Contributing to general arousal 2. Manage approach and withdrawal behaviors 3. Help us communicate nonverbally Emotional Expression Helps Us Communicate (Figure 14.1)  Viewing full body expressions of fear (a), compared to neutral (b) and happy (c)  Body postures, produced strong, immediate activity in brain areas associated with the processing of fearful stimuli and the preparation of responses such as flight.  Fearful postures, therefore, are likely to have had significant survival benefits to humans because the need to flee could be communicated rapidly to others without verbal explanation. Controlling Facial Expression (Figure 14.2)  Facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)  Upper third (expression) controlled differently than lower two thirds (  Pathways – motor cortex (voluntary expression) and subcortical system (spontaneous expression) How are they different?  Upper 1/3 = receives contralateral and ipsilateral input from the facial nerve  Lower 2/3 = receives contralateral input from facial nerve Voluntary and Spontaneous Expressions Are Managed by Different Areas of the Brain (Figure 14.3)  Person has tumor in RT motor cortex preventing him from smiling on left side of brain voluntarily  However, can smile spontaneously in response to involuntary emotion The Expression and Recognition of Emotion  Biological Influences on Emotional Expression o Universality of emotions by Ekman 1. Basic expressions common across cultures: happiness, surprise, disgust, sadness, fear, contempt, anger, embarrassment 2. No specific training seems to be required to identify them 3. Other expressions seem to be a blending of these Identify the Emotions in these Faces 1. Disgust 2. Anger 3. Fear 4. Sadness 5. Happiness 6. Surprise Ekman and Friesen (1976) faces  (Image top to bottom: happiness, fear, disgust, surprise, sadness, anger) Facial Expression of Emotions in Nonhuman Primates  b = play face  c = bared teeth signalling submission to a dominant animal  In other humans baring teeth has a friendlier meaning The Expression and Recognition of Emotion  Environmental Influences on Emotion o Presence of others influences intensity of emotional expression  Eg: people make more intense facial expressions in response to odors when in a group as opposed to when they are alone  Can we Spot a Liar? o Ways liars slip up  Less upper body movement, nervous smiling, laughing o Polygraph – unreliable o Functional MRIs may be used to detect changes in brain activation during lying Polygraph Testing (Figure 14.6)  New technology (fMRI) might soon provide more accurate means of assessing honesty  (a) Autonomic measures including respiration, galvanic skin response (an arousal measure using the electrical conductance of the skin), and blood pressure are taken during a series of neutral and emotional questions  (b) In Kleinmuntz and Szucko’s experiment using polygraph tests, a panel of “experts” concluded that more than 1/3 of the innocent participants were guilty, whereas a 1/4 of the guilty were judged to be innocent First, a Little History: Cannon  "The desire of food and drink, the relish of taking them, all the pleasures of the table are naught in the presense of anger or great anxiety"  Argued that intense activity of the sympathetic division prepare animal to fully utilize metabolic and other resources in challenging or threatening situations  Conversely, the parasympathetic division promotes a building up of metabolic reserves Theories of Emotion: Three Theories of Emotion (Figure 14.9)  James-Lange Theory  Cannon-Bard Theory  Schachter-Singer Theory  Contemporary Theories of Emotion Theories of Emotion  James-Lange Theory o Physical states of each type of feeling are highly distinct and we are capable of labeling these states as separate feelings o Capilano Canyon study o Facial feedback hypothesis Biological Correlates of Emotion  The Autonomic Nervous System o Flight or fight response o ANS produces different patterns of arousal during different emotional states  E.g.: increases/decreases in heart rate  Cutaneous blood flow (blushing)  Sweating  Piloerection  Gastrointestinal motility  The Amygdala o First, some anatomy…next slide o Klüver-Bucy Syndrome  Both temporal lobes removed o Role of amygdala in identific
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