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PSYB65 Lectures

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Ted Petit

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PSYB65 Lecture 1 Basic structure of the brain2 major groups of NS central and peripheralcentralbrain and spinal cord peripheralnervesleave spinal cord v little difference between brain and spinal cord mammalian brain divided into three components forebrain midbrain hindbrain slide 5 yellow area two major components in hindbrainmedullabasic process ie heartbeat and respiration brain stemcore of the brainclosest portion the spinal crd anteriorin front of you posteriorbehind lateralon the sides cerebellumsensory motor coordinationused to coordinate the bodyconstantly monitors balanceback of the brain bluegreen area midbrainresponsible for reticular formationsleep wakefulness function damage to reticular formationgo to sleep and dont wake upcomapink forebrain anterior in the braintwo components thalamus and hypothalamus thalamus is dorsal top of head primitive in more evolved animalsmessages are relayed from thalamus to cerebral cortex relay centre hypothalamus is ventral beneath thalamuscontrols the functions that keeps the individual and species alivenot as primitive as medullainvolved in life processes ie territoriality sexual reproductionlack of function does not lead to immediate death like the medulla finding feeding fighting and sexual reproductionall forms of pleasurepleasure centreslide 7 limbic system not a single brain structurenumber of brain structure that are highly connected ie hippocampus amygdala lies between the brain stem and cerebral cortex more anterior than brain stem but is beneathinside of cerebral cortex deals with emotions and emotionality more primitive organisms dont have a limbic system larger the limbic system the largergreater the emotional repertoireie dogs vs turtlescerebral cortex part of the forebrain covers the other parts of the brain also known as neocortex humans dont have the largest cortex animal with the biggest cortexelephant but in comparison to body mass dolphins have the largest and humans have the second largest responsible for intellectual functionslearning reading musical abilities intelligenceEvolution of the brain slide 10 humans have developed a very large cortex one of the largest evolutionary trend is to develop a very large cortex relative to body size size of the structure of the brain that controls a particular function is directly proportional tothe importance of that function for that animalsie if vision is important to an animal the vision centre will be large if an animal hasnt evolved in a situation in which it needs a particular function the brain hasnt evolved as well ie rats are very olfactory cats and eagles rely on vision therefore those parts of the brain are very highly developed some mammals can smell when the opposite sex is sexually receptiveevolutionary pressure to reproduce and for carrying on the speciesOntogenetic Individual development of Brain slide 11 development of individual brain in an individual has a similar trend to evolutionary development of brainhuman embryo brain developmentontogeny recapitulates phylogeny other than brains that follow evolution tails are resorbed mammary glands are resorbed and begin off with webbed handsdont need these move from primitive to more advanced 3 weeks just has neural tube then anterior portion starts to develop more and more as embryo growssimilar to evolution more primitive animals have just neural tubes and more advanced animals have a greater anterior portion cortex starts off at 3 weeks at the most anterior of brain in adult brain you would not know that the cortex is the most anterior structure because it covers most of the brain even though you cant see this the cortex is the most anterior portion of the brain in adults as wellThe Triune Theory of Brain Function slide 12 and 13 proposed by MacleanMacleans triune theory of brain functionthree distinct parts in human brain 3 brains in 1 Maclean we have a reptilian brain brain stemcontrols basic processes paleomammalianold mammalian brain limbic systememotionalityreptiles odnt have much of an emotional sphere neomammalian brain cerebral cortexintelligence reasoningPSYB65 Lecture 2Cerebral Cortex most brains of animals are smooth but not humans because theres not enough space in our skull for it to be smoothbut our brains start off as smooth and then it folds up on itself when there is not more space to grow sulci single sulcusvalleys of the brain extremely large sulcifissure gyrus plural gyrimountains of the brain raised portion brain is divided right down the centre separated into two hemisphere right and left right hemisphere receives information and controls from the lefthand side of the bodyand vice versa the two sides are divided by the longitudinal fissure slide 1 the pathway that connects the two hemispheres is called the corpus callosum slide 2 each part of the one hemisphere is connected to the adjacent part on the other hemisphere there are three main sulci longitudinal fissure central sulcusfissure sylvianlateral fissure central sulcus divides the frontal lobe of the brain from the back parietal lobe part of the brain sylvian fissure runs up the side of the brain and separates the temporal lobecerebral cortex is divided into four lobes each hemisphere has four lobesThe Lobes of the Brain there are four lobes frontal parietal occipital temporal each lobe has one major function within each lobe there are two different types of cortices tissueeach lobe has two of these primary cortex and associational cortex primary cortex is responsible for performing some basic inputoutput area responsible for the primary inputoutput of that lobebrain is receiving sensory info process the input and sends info outeach lobe has a primary areawhen receiving info it is the primary receptor association cortex is for higher order functions more recently evolved the more evolved an organism is the higher the percentage of association cortex humans have a very small primary cortex in comparison to association cortexBrodmann mapped the brain and put numbers on the different areas of the brain numbers are maps slide 3able to pinpoint regions of the brain slide 3 top picture is from the outside view and the bottom is from the midsaginal middle section of brainFrontal Lobe begins in the anterior portion of the brain and goes back to the central sulcusprimary function motor controlmovement primary cortex planning movements and longterm planning and inhibition of inappropriate behaviours delaying gratification association cortexin Brodmanns map 4 and 6 primary motor output of the brain precentral gyrus of the gyrus is right in front of the central sulcusprimary strip in the motor cortex for frontal lobe primary motor strip4 and 6 and all the rest of the frontal lobe is the association cortex primary motor strip that works when you move your limbs talk etc the association cortex rest of the frontal lobe is for longterm planning etc slide 5 bluish area primary cortex primary motor strip is not randomly organizedmotor homunculus little man in the brain when you take a slice of the motor strip slide 6 there are neurons in order topsidebottom that move different parts of the body and spaces devoted to different parts are different sizes size for the hands is large compared to others if you see someone paralyzed on the right hand side it means the tumour is in the left hemisphere in the frontal lobe in 4 and 6 of Brodmanns map in the prefrontal gyrus and in the side of the slice homunculusParietal Lobestarts at the central sulcus and moves back until it hits the occipital lobe
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