Cerebral Cortex: Sulcus (singular)/sulci (plural) – these are the valleys. Fissures– these are extremely large valleys.
Gyrus/Gyri – these are the mountains
Three Main Sulci: Longitudinal fissure (sulcus): two hemispheres are divided by the very large sulci. Central sulcus:
central sulcus/fissure, clearly divide the brain from the frontal lobe and the back (parietal lobe). Anterior lobe and
parietal lobe. Sylvian sulcus:/fissure: lateral sulcus/fissure. Runs up the side of the brain, which separate the
temporal lobe (light green)
Corpus Collosum: connects the two hemispheres, send fiber pathways across the corpus collosum. Each part of the
right hemisphere is connected to the adjacent hemisphere.
Brain Vascular Supply: Blood supply of the brain, internal carotid artery. The supply of the brain is essential for
strokes. Blood can come in from two things: internal carotid artery (come from the side), or up the vertebral
artery (come each side up the vertebral) and come up the base of the brain to form the basilar artery. Everything
comes together by the Circle of Willis – it is like a roundabout – set of arteries that connects in a circular manner
that supply the brain and its arteries. Connects the basilar arteries and internal carotid artery
cerebral vascular accidents (CVA) :general term that something happens in the blood supply of the brain (stroke) it
can be slow or fast, but the majority of the time its fast
ischemia: severe interruption in the blood supply of the brain, brain is not receiving enough oxygen or glucose
result of a stroke/blockage of an artery, can also be due to heart attack, heart stop pumping blood, brain stops
receiving oxygen. infarct: area of the brain that is dead or dying.
Encephalo malacia: blood supply loss is very slow (different from CVA happens very fast), Softening of the brain
tissue, occurs over years, doesn’t affect all the neurons, Slow blockage of the artery, associated with the elderly
and Some cause dementia, softening of brain tissue
Transient ischemic attack (TIA): temporary, short lived, not permanent, not enough oxygen going to the brain,
constrict muscles that surround the blood vessels (migraines), doesn’t get enough glucose to the brain, that’s why
you can’t see clearly
Thrombosis: locally formed aclusion. It happens on the spot. A local blockage. Blood clots in the brain
Embolism: blockage forms elsewhere in the body. It breaks off from there and floats around in the artery and then
lodges itself in the brain
Arterial schelorosis: Slow constriction/cholesterol forming plaque of the artery which closes the artery off and it
can break off and migrate to the brain.
Cerebral hemorrhage : blood vessels burst and you get a massive bleeding, It can be life threatening, depending on
where it bursts, but it doesn’t have to be
Subdural hematoma: bleeding outside the brain, bleeding between the dura (skull) and the brain.
Angioma: collection or a mass of blood vessels. That are usually enlarged and abnormal.These are what people are
born with (birth marks – discoloration of skin) Very fragile and prone to bursting, that’s why you want to fix it as
soon as possible
Aneurysm: vascular dilation. Expanded blood vessel that is caused by localized problem in elasticity. Could lead to
a stroke if the blood vessel burst or swelling of the blood vessel
Brain Cancer: Brain tumour: tissue that is grown quite independently of the surrounding tissue. Glioma: they count
for under half of brain tumours. From glial cells. There are 2 basic cell types: neurons- process information and glial
cells – helper/support cells. 45% percent of all brain tumours.
Meningioma: cancer of the meninges. Tumours to the brain coverings. Usually benign and not life threatening but
do put pressure on the brain
Encephalitis : some sort of infection/invasion/deterioration cause by external agent. Cause by viral infection (like
polio – affects their ability to walk. Rabies, herpes – can invade the nervous system)
Bacterial infection of the brain – they attack the meninges and causes meningitis, once meninges gets infected, it
can infect other areas of the brain. Meningitis can be cause by a virus or a bacteria and it is the swelling of the
Fungal infection – extremely rare, like in advances cases of AIDS. Brain becomes susceptible to fungal infection.
Parasitic infection – relatively rare in developed countries. Malaria and Amoebic infection of the brain.
Multiple Sclerosis: disease of the cells – myelin - that affects the oligodendrocyte and shwann cells. Chronic long
term inflammatory disease of central nervous system myelin, destroy glial cells. Symptoms: partial paralysis
1 (doesn’t have to, but most commonly), it can be sensory or motor. Can affect balance, vision, and ability to feel.
Onset is age 20-40; not a good prognosis if it starts earlier than that or after that age range and More prevalent in
colder climate, it is relatively rare in the tropics
Neuropathology: it is deterioration of the myelin sheath, it occurs in small localized areas. Refer to as plaques and
it can be scattered about the nervous system. How do we treat it? No cure, but we can use steroids which reduces
inflammation and swelling in the body. Virus, Result in an autoimmune disorder: when body starts to attack itself,
when they think they see foreign cells when in reality it is their own cells and kills its own glial cells.Treat it by
reducing the symptoms by reducing the swelling
Neurons are cells that communicate information. They have a membrane which has channels in it. These channels
open up for various different reasons, are stimulated in different ways (electrically or chemically). When they do,
there is high proportion of sodium on the outside of the cell. When these pores open up, then the sodium gets in
because everything comes in high density to low density.
Transmitter Substances: Synthesis: It has to be made; there is a mechanism in neurons for biochemical process
whereby transmitters are synthesized.Storage: It has to be stored in the synaptic vesicles. Or packaged inside the
synaptic vesicles. Release: when action potential comes along, the synaptic vesicles merges with the presynaptic
membrane and the transmitter system is released. Released upon activation.Receptor Interaction: It has to
interact with the receptor. Inactivation: Get rid of the transmitter by breaking it down, tearing it up and destroy it.
Reuptake: Get rid of the transmitter by taking it back up in the presynaptic cells by reabsorbing it out of the cleft
Parkinson Disease: Michael J. Fox. It is a disease that affects dopamine and causes it to be depressed. He can’t
move, get out of chairs and shakes. His dopamine is not working well in his brain. His dopamine is
underdeveloped.Synthesis: increase synthesis by making more. Packaging: unknown chemical to increase
packaging. Release: Increase many releases to active all those receptors on the post synaptic membrane. Receptor
activation: interacting with the receptor by stimulating it and opening the channel by increasing more and more of
it. We have chemicals that are mimickers that looks like the transmitter substance. Cocaine is an excellent
mimickers that looks like a natural occurring transmitter substance in the brain Inactivation: breaking it down or
reuptake: This is a double negative. Inactivation/breakdown – if you want more activation, you need to decrease;
you want to stop it from breaking it down so it can stay there longer.
Schizophrenic: inherited a gene, 1 in a 100 people gets it. Her dopamine is over active where it causes her delusion
of grandeur. How can we reduce her dopamine levels back to normal? Find some drugs the can decrease the
functional activity in the dopamine urgic system. Synthesis: decrease synthesis because her system is already over
active. Packaging: decrease packaging because without it being package properly you get less transmitter
substance (make it leaky). Release: Decrease and stop it from releasing because it’s releasing too much. Receptor
activation: decrease the functional activity of the system by slowing it down. Use a blocker – they block the
receptors. Inactivation: if you want to slow the system down, then you need to increase the destruction so it can
slow the system down. They block the site for the biogenic gamines or mono-amines – serotonin, norepinephrine,
and dopamine. Dopamine blockers were the most effective, dopamine receptor blockers. Suggested that
dopamine was a problem, receptors blockers were most effective and help schizophrenic get better. Dopamine
stimulants such as amphetamines did two things – 1/ if you were latent schizophrenic causes them to immediately
have symptoms. 2/ normal people who take high level of uppers in 24 hours, will begin to show schizophrenic type
of behaviour/symptoms. If you suppress the dopamine receptors too much, give them too much medication, then
you might get Parkinson’s Disease.
If your blood pressure gets high..it could lead to a stroke!
Epilepsy: repetitive discharge (firing) of a hyper excitable aggregate (collection/group) of neurons. Frequently
associated with convulsions. Repetitive activation of excitable group of neurons Genetics (rare) – it is in the family
Onset of the age Under the age of 20 – something that happens at birth or around birth – trauma to the brain,
hypoxia (not enough oxygen), umbilical cord wrapped around the neck, congeniality defect (what they are born
with), metabolic defect (metabolism defect), infectious disease. Most commonly cause by some damage to the
brain – infection, head trauma etc.Leads to scar tissue when there is damage to the brain Scar tissue irritates the
neurons in the brain and Causes them to fire. If you do have a brain injury then will put you on some kind of CNS
2 depressant to slow the brain activity down. Keep the neurons from firing, so it doesn’t start this repetitive action.
Valium to keep it from being hyper excitable
Grandmal epilepsy: that are associated with seizures. It can come out of no where, before it happens there is an
aura – a strange negative feeling/smell that precedes the seizure, usually by a few minutes to a few days like a
Distinct smell, bad feeling, da ja vu, confusion and It often gives you a hint and location of the damage, where is
the scar tissue It has 2 stages: Starts off at a tonic phase The body stiffens, the neurons are firing and activation of