Aphemia (Broca’s Aphasia): Left frontal lobe lesions and are incapable of speech but retained ability to
Cardiocentric hypothesis: heart is the centre for cognitive and emotional function. Cephalocentric:
brain in the centre for behavior
Engram: a change in the brain that is responsible for storing memories (Karl Lashey)
Equipotentiality: proposal that the cortex function as a whole, with no specialization within it.
Histology: examination of think, fixed section of the brain that has been stained with different
techniques (golgi stain)
Law of Mass Action: the proposal that the degree of deficit is directly related to the proportion of brain
that has been lesioned.
Leucotomy: The procedure in which the thalamus is disconnected from the frontal lobe with a special
knife called leukotome (Moniz)
Monism: the idea that the mind and the body is the same thing (neuropsychologist believe this)
Neuron Doctrine: neurons were not continuous and they must communicated by contact (Santiago
Postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe: somatosensory cortex, an area of the brain that when stimulated
electrically, results in sensations being touched
Prefrontal lobotomy: 1930s Walter Freeman involved inserting sharp object through the eye orbit,
perforating the skull and destroying the connection to the prefrontal cortex.
Synapse: coined by Sherrington to describe the gap between neurons
Trephination: surgically opening the skull as a means of treatment.
Wernicke’s Aphasia: aphasia caused by lesions in left temporal lobes that result in the ability to speak
but not use words correctly or to understand the speech of others.
Dependent Variable: response of behavior that the experimenter measures, should be directly related
to the manipulation of the independent variable.
Acetylcholine: a neurotransmitter that is used by all motor neurons.
Afferent: carry sensory information to the CNS. Efferent – moving information away from the central
nervous system to muscles and glands
Limbic System – part of telencephalon, located in temporal lobes and made of amygdale, hippocampus,
fornix and mamillary bodies and includes learning, memory and emotion. Amygdala: part of the limbic
system that is involved with emotion
Anterior: toward the head, front of the brain and top of the spinal cord. Caudal – towards the tail.
Contralateral – on opposite side. Dorsal – towards the back, top of the brain, back of the spinal cord.
Inferior – below or bottommost. Posterior – toward the