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PSYB65 ~ Final Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 ~ Final Textbook Notes CHAPTER 10: SPATIAL ABILITY (323-342) MODULE 10.1 – SPATIAL ABILITY WHAT IS SPATIAL ABILITY  spatial ability: processing position, direction, or movement of objects or points in space  space is construct that includes real space (what you can sense right now) and imagined space (space you can think about when though can’t directly experience it right now)  when factory analysis used to define spatial ability, made up of 6 skills that correspond to ways we interact with space:  targeting: how well you can throw object at target  spatial orientation: how well you can recognize items even when they’re placed in different orientations, or directions  spatial location memory: how well you can remember location of objects  spatial visualization: how well you can imagine how well pieces of an object would go together  disembedding: how well you can find figures hidden within other pictures  spatial perception: how well you can determine where horizontal or vertical is in real world even if given distracting info HEMISPHERIC REPRESENTATION OF SPACE  most basic spatial ability is ability to locate point in space  to localize point in space, need to know where point is absolutely and relative position of that point; to know whether point occupies same location as another point requires depth perception  neurologically normal people can identify location of dot more readily when it occurs in left visual field; interpreted as being indicative of superiority of RH (right hemisphere) for processing spatial location  RH (especially right pre-frontal cortex) appears to be involved with recall of spatial location info  depth perception: ability to determine relative position of object; another very basic spatial ability; 2 types:  local depth perception: ability to use detailed features of objects point by point to asses relative position  global depth perception: ability to use difference between information reaching each eye to compute entire visual scene  RH better at determining global depth perception  determination of which object in front of another shows left VF (visual field) advantage in normals; both left and RH legions disrupt local depth perception  line orientation: ability to localize a line and identify its orientation  RH advantage for both tactile and visual assessment of line orientation  if lines can be described verbally (“horizontal”, “vertical”), often LH advantage emerges  object geometry: whether or not item shares spatial properties with another  RH advantage for judgement of similarity between curved lines when using either visual or tactile modalities  decisions regarding whether or not complex novel figure had been viewed previously more accurate when figure presented in left VF; RH superior at this task  motion detection and prediction of trajectory are fundamental and complex spatial abilities  in humans, detection of motion related to increased activity in RH; particularly in occipital, temporal, and parietal areas associated with processing of visual info  mental rotation: rotation that does not occur overtly; abilities rely on RH, as measured by enhanced accuracy in left VF or tasks of mental rotation that result in greater activation of RH PARIETAL LOBES  visual info received in primary visual area (area V1 of occipital lobe or striate cortex), transferred to other areas of occipital lobe  beyond occipital lobes, info appears to be divided into complementary dorsal and ventral streams  ventral visual stream considered “what” pathway useful for identifying objects  dorsal visual stream considered “how pathway”; one role is to know how motor acts must be performed to manipulate object; supports spatial processing of info; projects from primary visual areas to parietal regions  properties of cells within areas 5 and 7 sensitive to certain attributes that allow stable cognitive maps to be made  don’t receive much info about colour of object or fine details of object, needed to identify object  seem to respond to movements that occur in specific directions, allowing objects to be tracked in space  respond best to movements similar in speed to walking or running  sensitivity in movement allows area 7 to analyze space and update positions of objects in space  cells in inferior parietal region sensitive to retinotopic representations of space as well as head position, movement, and speed of movement  monkeys with parietal lobe lesions appear to be quite impaired at computing spatial relations among objects; human brains work similarly  discrimination of form involves ventral stream, discrimination of spatial location involves dorsal stream  greater activation in right parietal lobes when participants asked to perform tasks that required processing of spatial location  some cells in parietal lobe sensitive to visual qualities of object (ex. texture); influence how hands manipulate an object  properties of dorsal stream of parietal lobe well suited to processing info about how to interact with objects and where they are in space  reciprocal connections of parietal lobes with frontal lobes that make dorsal stream important for coordinating movements with spatial locations of objects FRONTAL LOBES  system of parietal cells that project to areas of frontal lobes, to both premotor and prefrontal cortex  these areas receive massive inputs from somatosensory, auditory, and visual association areas of parietal lobes  associative nature of inputs to this system suggest that one of functions is to provide accurate coordinate system of visual space and to locate objects in space  neurons in posterior parietal cortex respond to stimuli within grasping space and project to frontal motor system to guide movements  within frontal lobes, also nuclei responsible for directing head and eye movements toward stimuli in grasping space  communicate extensively with parietal lobes, further enhancing our ability to program motor movements aimed at reaching and grasping objects in space  visuospatial working memory: short-term visuospatial memory; reflected by activation of dorsal premotor cortex  studies also found parietal lobe activation, with activation in other, more frontal areas, including inferior, middle, and precentral gyri and superior frontal sulcus  also activation within motor areas of frontal lobes, particularly those involved in moving head, such as frontal eye fields and presupplementary motor area  appears to reflect potential planning of motor movements required if imagined task were real  particularly evident in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions; most impaired when visuospatial working memory required to guide motor responses  performance of visuospatial working memory tasks engage dorsal stream, and its connections to frontal lobe TEMPORAL LOBES  evidence suggests dorsal stream involved in identifying where object is in space and guiding motor movements  evidence suggests ventral stream involved in identifying of object (deciding what object it)  studies that implicated parietal and frontal lobes playing role in spatial localization of objects have found that these tasks resulted in increased activity in temporal lobes  temporal lobes, specifically hippocampal formation, also involved in tasks that require spatial learning  hippocampal formation located within temporal lobes; includes dentate gyrus, specific areas of hippocampus, and subiculum  hippocampus receives info from entorhinal cortex, which receives major inputs from various cortical association areas; hippocampus well placed to integrate info from variety of cortical and subcortical areas  hippocampus appears to engage in processing memory for places; damage to hippocampal formation results in inability to form new memories for places and difficulty in utilizing spatial info to produce memories about places  place cells within hippocampus respond when rat moving through space; some cells respond only to certain locations, other cells respond only to other locations  cells within hippocampus respond preferentially and selectively to spatial locations; these cells may form basis of hippocampus to form memories about space  when we interact with spatial locations of objects, can utilize 3 types of info about object:  position responses: made with movements using body as referent; don’t need any cues external to body, relatively automatic  cued responses: movements guided by cue(changes in how we perceive stimulus); rely on perception of info external to body  place responses: made toward p
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