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Midterm

Textbook - Midterm.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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TYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLE Pick the dateMain Teaching PointsModule 11 Introduction to Neuropsychology 1 The 10 Myth 2 What is Neuropsychology 3 Heart Mind and Brain The Early History of Neuropsychology4 The MindBody ProblemModule 12 The Recent History of Neuropsychology 1 Cataloguing the Effects of Lesions 2 Focus on the Neuron 3 The Brain Mappers 4 Functional Neurosurgery 5 The Paradigm Shift in NeuropsychologyModule 11 Introduction to Neuropsychology The 10 MythMyth Humans use only 10 of their brain OverinterpretationMarieJeanPierre FlourensKarl Lashleyanimals were able to perform basic function after almost 90 of their brains were damaged What is NeuropsychologyNeuropsychologythe study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain Assumes that an individuals behaviour is at least in part the result of the activity in the brain Types of Neuropsychologists1 Clinical Neuropsychologythe branch of neuropsychology concerned with psychological assessment management and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury2 Experimental Neuropsychologythe branch of neuropsychology concerned with how human behaviour arises from brain activity which includes explaining how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural components Aka Cognitive NeuropsychologyCognitive NeuroscienceHeart Mind and Brain The Early History of Neuropsychology A Human thoughts and behaviours were not always attributed to the brain1 Empedocleso All matter was composed of four elements fire air water earth o CardiacCardiocentric Hypothesis Heart was the source of human behaviour2 Aristotleo Heart is normally very active and warmsource of thought and sensationo Brain served as a radiator cooling the blood B Cephalocentric HypothesisBrain Hypothesis o HippocratesGalen o Brain is responsible for human behaviour TYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLE Pick the dateThe MindBody ProblemRene Descartes Reflexive Theory of the control of behaviourthe flow of animal spirits through valvules within nervous tissue filaments Reflexive behaviour caused by external stimuli animal spiritsAccounted for some involuntary behaviours withdrawing ones hand from a hot stimulusbut could not account for voluntary behaviour Believed that voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational decisionmaking soulPineal glandwas single and surrounded by CSFCavities of CSF were reservoirs for the animal spirits necessary for actionvoluntary action would produce small movements of the pineal gland resulting in the release of animal spirits throughout the body and producing movement of the bodyInfluenced by technologies of that time hydraulics Dualismthe mind and body are separate but interacting entities Mind and body do interact in a causal fashion without specifying howMind and body function in parallel without interactingMind can affect the body but the body cannot affect the mind Monismmind and body are unitary Module 12 The Recent History of NeuropsychologyYear 19901990s would be the decade of the brainNeuropsychology draws from a number of very established disciplines anthropology biology physiology neurology Cataloging the Effects of Lesions A Contributors to Passive Role of Brain 1 JeanCesar Lagalloiso Lesioning the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathingdiscovery of respiratory center within the medullao First widely accepted function to be localized within the brain 2 Charles BellFrancois Magendieo Studied the nerves that exited the spinal corddorsal roots nerves that leave the spinal cord on the back of the spinal cordhad sensory functions ventral roots nerves that leave the spinal cord on the front were responsible for motor functions Functional Segregation of spinal cord set stage to examine whether or not the brain was also organized into separate sensory and motor componentsB Functional and Anatomical Segregation1 Franz Joseph Gallo Stated that there were 27 distinct cognitive abilities faculties that could be localized on the cortex of the human brainwere poorly defined faculties love of friends wisdom acquisitiveness destructiveness etc o Cognitive skills such as mathematical ability memory for words and spoken language were mediated by separate areas of the brain o Believed that the cortex behaved like muscles in that increased size of an area was associated with increased functionphrenologyTYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLE Pick the date Increase in size could result in a deformation of the skull which then could be measured empirically by using a technique called cranioscopy Phrenologythe measurements of the skull and pronouncement on personality2 MarieJeanPierre Flourenso Strong critic against phrenologyphrenology was at best subjective and that all analyses were performed post hoco Firm believer of empirical methodlesioning techniques to study corresponding effects on behaviour Cerebellumcoordinated movementMedullavital functions Observed that sometimes following lesions function may be restoredo Equipotentialitycortex functioned as a whole and that there was no functional specialization within the cortex3 Friedrich Goltzo Believed in Flourens equipotentialityperformed a number of experiments involving the removal of the cortex in dogs and cats and observed that only the size of the lesion not the location of the lesion affected the behaviour of the nonhuman animal4 David Ferrierbehavioural observations of decorticate dogs and monkeys were inconsistent with the position of cortical equipotentialityo Suggested that the results of the lesion experiments were consistent with the localization of sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex5 Gustav FritshEduard Hitzigo Demonstrated that the frontal cortex of the dog was essential for the production of normal movemento Overturned theory of cortical equipotentialityGall was right but for wrong reasonGoltz and Fluorens used right techniques but came to the wrong conclusions6 Paul Broca o Languagefirst higher cognitive function that was successfully localized o Role of frontal cortex in the production of speech Tancircumscribed lesion of left frontal lobe resulted in the incapability of speech productionAmphemiaBrocas Aphasialost the ability for speech but retained the ability to understand language articulate speech was affected7 Carl Wernickeo There was an auditory center Wernickes area in the temporal lobes that when damaged would result in an individual who could still produce speech but would be incapable of using words correctly and be unable to understand the speech of others Wernickes Aphasiao There should be a number of different aphasias that would produce different symptoms based on the site and extent of the lesionso The total or global aphasia a complete inability to understand or produce language would result from lesions of both Wernickes and Brocas areas Focus on the Neuron Anatomical StudiesChallenges that had to be overcome to study the cellular constituents of the brain
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