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Lectures - Final.docx

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Ted Petit

Lecture 7 Main Teaching PointsBrain from the pharmacology perspective Selfinduced drugs How drugs workThe different kinds of drugsstimulants Global Overview of How Drugs are Classified 1 Prescription drugsdrugs that doctors prescribe What drugs are considered legal or illegal varies over time and across different countries 2 Overthecounter drugsdrugs that do not require prescriptions3 Social Drugsnicotine caffeine alcoholthings that are not bought from drugstores4 Drugs that are not produced commercially or if they are produced commercially they are not produced for the psychoactive effects MarijuanaAirplane Glueproduced commercially but does not produced for its psychoactive effectsTolerancemost drugs if taken repeatedly will result in a decreasing behavioural effectExample of Cause with Stimulanto Whenever a drug ex stimulant is taken normally it will cause excess amounts of transmitters to be released due to different mechanismswinds up with more transmitter substances stimulating the postsynaptic neurons receptorso As more and more neurotransmitters are released and there is hyperstimulation of the receptors receptors are bombarded there is classic response from postsynaptic receptor that will result in the reduce the number of sensitive of the postsynaptic receptorso Will start reducing the number of receptors that it has to compensate for overactivationpostsynaptic will not fire as often selfregulatestones down sensitivity of receptorsExample of Cause with Depressanto Depressant is slowing down functional activitydecreases activation of postsynaptic cellrealizes that it is not hitting the normal number activity that it should will start to increase in the numbersensitivity of postsynaptic receptor o Will respond by building more receptors to compensate for the depression of brainsame amount of drugs that will stop 4 receptors will not have to stop 8 receptors o Instead of person being depressed the drugs will no longer have the same dramatic event wont be relaxed as muchDepends on the drug that whether a tolerance effect may be producedo Ritalindrugs for ADHDADD has no tolerance affecto LSDdrugs that have tolerance effectWithdrawalmost drugs if taken for a prolonged period of time will result in the dependency of that drug withdrawal effects Alcoholvalium used as treatment to reduce withdrawal effectsCoffee cigarettes Causeso Brain has adjusted itself less sensitivefewer receptorso Taking stimulant away will result in normal amounts of firing but the postsynaptic membrane dont have that many receptors due to prolong effects of stimulantsthe postsynaptic neuron will be under stimulated o Normal amounts of stimulation will leave the postsynaptic cell under stimulatedThe effects of withdrawal are the exact opposite of the effects of the drugThose are on stimulants will become depressed those that are depressed will become hyper Results if the individual has been on the drug for a long time Stimulants Brain will adjust itself and within a few days will get back to normalnot life threateningDepressants Will go through a period of hyper stimulation phase which if severe enough can result in seizures and deatho Symptoms Shaking Seizures o Can be life threatening depending on severity o Never take someone directly off depressionswill risk hyper stimulation of the brain Want to take the individual off behaviourallyAddictionthe individual wants to have the drug the person that has been exposed to the drug wants to have itBehavioural dependentbehaviouralphysical requirement for the drug There are different typeso Psychological addictionbehavioural dependence on the drug very difficult to defineThe person behavioural feels like they really need the substance o Physical addictionresultsin physical withdraw symptompsychophysical response General Rule The more rapid the effect of the drug the more addicting it isAddictiveness depends on method of administration Cocaine Gives people slight activity level just like effect of coffee tea Mildly addicting qualityslow onset of desired effectMay be mildly addicting or not addicting at all Crack CocaineMore rapid effectvery strong and fastvery addicting Instead of going to digestive system where it is digested the individual experiences and instant rush
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