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Psyb65 midterm notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Internouran- reflex neuron (dendrites) long axons that extend out and touch the muscles Motor neurons Many different shapes and sizes of neurons and depends on what their functions on and what they need to do for their environment Gilil cells Ependymal astrocyte microglial oligodendroglia( found only in the CNS) Schwann( found on in PNS) Gray matter- color from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies. Uses most of the glucose energy in keeping with that you have to have a blood supply that’s mapped on gray matter White matter- color from axons covered in an insulating layer of glial cells Reticular matter Color and appearance from cell bodies and axons Layers of nuclei well defined groups of cell bodies basal ganglia Tract- large collection of axons projecting to or away from layer of nuclei (white matter) difference between tract and a nerve Ventricles- hollow pockets within the brain filled with CSF 30 spinal cord segments divided into 5 different regions: Cervical thoracic lumbar sacral, coccygeal Dermatones Dorsa root- (sensory) strand of afferent fibers entering the spinal cord carries sensory information to the brain Ventral root- (Motor) strand of efferent fibers leaving the spinal cord, carries motor information to the body Francois Magendie and Charles bell; determined the relationship between dorsal and ventral part of the spinal cord Spinal cord is capable of complex action specific movements reflexive response called flexion (pain stimulation) for example touching a hot stove you flex away from pain Extension ( stimulation of fine touch) **Cranial nerves; 12 pairs overseen by the brain they have efferent and afferent Ex: Trochlear nerve ; small loop bony structure around the orbit of each eye which acts like a pulley Two divisions of autonomic nervous system Sympathetic arouses the body for action fight of flight spinal nerves in the thoracic and lumber regions are connected to the ganglia Parasympathetic ; bringing the nervous system back to baseline ( reacting to the fear of a dog while it’s chasing you) When someone is scared they’re digestive system shuts down along with their non vital organs The brainstem has three regions Diencephalon Midbrain- theres a little whole the midbrain pops out of Hindbrain- closer to the spinal cord (cerebellum and the medulla); cerebellum surface gathered into folia coordinates and helps learn skilled movements Reticular formation controls sleep and arousal and controls you when your rem sleeping so that you do not react to dreams Medulla and pons Mid brain tectum located dorsally refers to roof sensory input from eyes and ears Red nucleus – limb movements Substania nigra – reward and initiantion of movement ( mainly affected in parkinsons disease) Periacqueductal nural gray ; Lecture 4: diencephalon Hypothalmus : hunger sexual appetite thirst Epithalmus another term for penial gland, associated with bio rythyms Thalamus: like a relay centre so many different circuits process different streams of information as they go from one part of the cortex to the other Forebrain composed of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia limbic system which are called subcortical Basal ganglia: arranged around the ventricular systems provides for seamless movements, huntingtons korea has an uncontrollable ability to control their movements Parkinsons basis substantion negra Tourettes syndrome : this is also affected by the basal ganglia, where they have behaviours that they can not control ,, have motor ticks Limbic lobe responsible for memory and processing memory Neocortex most evolved, frontal lobe then proprital lobe there are 6 layers involved with different layers of functions comprises 80% of the brain two hemishpheres four lobes Fissure a cleft in the cortex that is deep enough to indent the vetricles (largest fissure that goes directly down the brain called the longitudinal medial fissure ) lateral fissure or sylvian fissure Sulcis more shallow groove within the cortex which is what most of the cortex ismade up of Between the sulci is the jirai which is just soft ridges Projection map – inputs and outputs Primary areas Frontal love- motor functions Parietal lobe- body senses Temporal lobe auditory functions Occipital love- visual functions Secondary areas –adjacent to primary areas receive input from the primary areas iinterperts sensory and movements Tertiary areas (association cortex) – mediate the most complex activities, which is located in the prirital lobe Going from one lobe to another, there is white matter that connects Interhemispheric connections The crossed brain (the brain has contralateral organization which means the opposite of the body reacts to what the brain is telling it to do ) Liberal vs conservative liberal is a much more aggressive and intrusive procedure vs conservative is very mild and non invasive Single cell recording an electrode is inserted into the brain adjacent to a neuron the neurons activity is now recorded, many individual neurons can be recorded at a time Neuronal code: time code event code and frequency of firing , neurons exhibit different firing patterns depending on the situation Brain uses codes to represent information Well learned behaviour- few neurons Newly learned behaviour- widespread activity and uses a lot of neurons EEG Electroencephalographic recording – looking at the surface electrical activity of the brain Its used for sleep studies depth of anesthesia and studying normal brain function Brain waves can be broken down into 4 different patterns - Beta Rythms when were awake - Alph waves more relaxed - Theta waves when were sleeping - Delta waves very deep sleep last much longer than any other waves EEG can diagnose epilepsy petit mal is more intense where someone can be foaming at the mouth Grand mal is not so extreme ( the friend that had a seizure but was able to control it) ERP event related potentials brief change iin a slow wave eeg signal in response to a dscrete sensory stimulus classified as an erp something that is controlled by the experimenter EEG is the actual technology versus the ERP is testing if someone is actually experiencing what they say they are experiencing Lecture 5 Magnetoencephalography (MEG) -records macgentic fields of neurons permits d-d localization of the cell groups generating the magnetic field produces an isocontour map you can triangulate the part of the cortex that’s active during a process or absent during a process -Deep brain stimulation (DBS) ;electrodes implanted in the brain to stimulate the tissue used as a treatment for parkinsons disease Trascranial magnetic stimulation ; stimulation of the brain using magnetic stimulator it’s a coil of magnetic electrodes tha
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