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Midterm

PSYB65 MIDTERM NOTES.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Summer

Description
PSYB65 NOTESCHAPTER 1traumatic brain injury TBI a wound to the brain that results from a blow to the headneuropsychology the study of the relation between behaviour and brain functionbrain hypothesis the idea that the brain is the source of behaviourneuron hypothesis the idea that the unit of brain structure and function is the neuronFunctionally the forebrain mediates cognitive functions the brainstem mediates regulatory functions such as eating drinking and moving and the spinal cord is responsible for sending commands to the musclesdistinguishing features of the CNS is that after damage it does not regenerate lost tissue whereas PNS tissue will regrow after damageThe philosophical position that a persons mind is responsible for behavior is called mentalism meaning of the mindphrenology the study of the relation between the skulls surface features and a persons facultiesthe anterior speech region of the brain is called Brocas area and the syndrome that results from its damage is called Brocas aphasialateralization functions could be localized to a side of the brainWERNICKEhe described cases in which aphasic patients had lesions in this auditory projection area that differed from those described by Broca in four ways 1Damage was evident in the first temporal gyrus 2 No oppositeside paralysis was observed Brocas aphasia is frequently associated with paralysis of the right arm and leg as described for Tan 3 Patients could speak fluently but what they said was confused and made little sense Brocas patients could not articulate but they seemed to understand the meaning of words 4Although the patients were able to hear they could neither understand nor repeat what was said to themWernickes syndrome is sometimes called temporallobe aphasia or fluent aphasia to emphasize that the person can say words but is more frequently called Wernickes aphasiaauditory ideas from the ear are sent to brocas area via a pathway called arcuate fasciculuswhere the representation of speech movements are storedthen sent to muscles that control movements of the mouth to produce appropriate soundconduction aphasia speech sounds and movements are retained as is comprehension but speech is still impaired because the person cannot judge the sense of the words that he or she heardalexia the loss of the ability to read apraxia an inability to make sequences of movement visual agnosia cant see the shapes of objects or recognize objects visually by their shape ventral streamvisual ataxia patients can describe objects accurately but they make errors in reaching for them dorsal streamthree aspects of the neuron hypothesis that neurons are discrete autonomous cells that interact but are not physically connected that they send electrical signals that have a chemical basis and that they communicate with one another by using chemical signalsGolgi proposed that neurons were interconnected and formed a net thus providing the basis
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