psyb65 LECTURE NOTES.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

PSYB65 Lecture 1History of NeuropsychologyPsychology has a long past but a short historyHermann EbbinghausWritten record of the understanding of our selves is limited only 10000 years Humans have developed to be the only species that think about dying and deathTrephinationSurgical procedure that a hole is made in the skull and some people surviveReasons medical or magicalo After trauma swelling occurs and removing part of the skull can help during the healing process o Maybe they were trying to understand psychological phenomena but actually going into the skullModern NeurosurgeryCraniotomyectomyremoving the brain flap same idea o Depressed skull fractures which is pushing the bone into the brain removing the bone helps as treatment o ICP monitoringtreatmentswelling in the brain and relieving the pressureSubduralepidural hematomas o Deep brain stimulation for people with Parkinsons Biological Basis of Human ExperienceBehaviour 2 themes in Western Cephalocentricbehaviours are caused from inside the brain o Alcmaeon of Croton o Hippocrates o PlatoCardiocentricbehaviours are caused from inside the heartit has nothing to do with the heart but it is part of our culture o Empedocles of Acragas o AristotleWestern PhilosophyPhilosophyNatural ScienceAncient Egyptian GreekRoman ThinkersNature and locus of the mindvery based on what they were exposed to at the timeAdvances in mathematics and philosophyEarly Greek MedicinePrior to 500 BCE medical practice was controlled by priestsTemplar physiciansAlcmaeon of CrotonObjectively dissected animalsEstablished medical school to stop priests etc Holistic approachif sick theres some sort of imbalance in the universe or their universeHippocrates 460377 BCEFounder of Modern MedicineHippocrates oathFirst do no harm Brain hypothesis Believed the brain was the seed of behaviour and experience He based it on his own experience Eg observing getting someone get hit in the head Contralateral organization in the brainRight side of the brain affects left side of the body left side of the brain affects the right side of the bodyEpilepsy he believed it is a natural cause not divine cause Believed the brain is the most powerful organ of the human body Aristotle 384322 BCEPhilosopherConceptualized Tabula Rasawe all start out as blank slatesNOT truePsyche o Nonmaterial o Responsible for human thought perception and emotion o Theological approach o PsycheMindo Position of Mentalismthinking about the mind as an abstract concept NOT tissue First true Empiricisteverything is learned through experience this is how we become who we are Cardiocentric philosopher put forth that the heart was the seed of though perception and emotiono Eg Belief that when they take out the heart they die Heart races because of emotion Life Ladder of Creationunderstood life as a continuum or hierarchyo Darwin used this understandingancestorGalen 130200 ACEPhysicianAnatomistBrain hypothesis brain responsible for thought emotion and perceptionVentricular localization thought the ventricles pushing through allowed for thought emotion and perceptionBodily fluidshumors thought the health and balance of the body was due to these fluidsdominated for about 1000 years Rene Descartes 15961650Philosopher hes a thinker I think therefore I amHow can nonmaterial mind produce movement in the material bodyDualismthe mind and the body are separate but interactMind o Nonmaterial o Decides on bodilymachine movementsBody o Material o Analogous to a machine reflexiveIn Paris he saw a statue that moved due to hydraulic pressureo He believed that ventricles of the brains and connectivity of tubes of fluid allowed for behaviour to become animatedSimilar to machines o He attributed this to The Pineal Gland a tiny structure which releases substances at the centre of the brainone part that isnt split down the middle FALSEThere will never be another Einstein never another Darwin because before the technological age people were allowed to study things and thought about things alone Today the world is an entire brain and people collectively create ideas
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