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Ted Petit (39)

lecture 4

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Ted Petit

Lecture 4: Brain and Behaviors The Physiology and the Chemistry of the Brain Information comes from the dendrite spines. There are exceptions to that rule. Then there is an action potential is created. When the dendrite spines are come in contact with excitory stimulus it causes ion channels to open in the membrane so that sodium can come pouring in into the inside of the neuron. Sodium has a positive charge on it, so it causes the inside of the neuron, normally the dendrite spine to be positive. When an area becomes positive it reaches a certain threshold, so it has a certain amount of positive ions inside of it. It causes the ion channels to open up in the area. When this threshold happens, the neuron has fired or an action potential. An action potential is a very high positive charge across a membrane. When action potiental has occurred, the information zips out into the axon and into the nerve terminal. Synapses: know basic info about the synapses. The space inbetween is called the synaptic cleft. When action potiential comes along they will merge with the terminal and release transmitter substances. Transmitters interact with receptors on the postsynaptic end. Parkinson disease: dont have enough dopamine. In his brain, we are trying to increase in dopamine. Eskitsofrinic: overactive of dopamine. Excess in dopamine. Lifecycle of neurotransmitter: o It has to be made. Usually involved with basic stuff. o When transmitters are made, you have to store them. If the package transmitters are floating around there are things in the environment that would eat it all up. o The packaged transmitters move towards the presynaptic area. o Then it is released, usually upon an action potential. o Have to interact with post synaptic receptors. o Inactivation : There are two methods of doing that. Reuptake: the presynaptic terminal takes the transmitters back up. DegradationBreakdown: it is broken down and degraded. Mimicker: Chemicals that can mimick the activity of a neurotransmitters. They look very much like the transmitters itself, it is not exactly it. They will go in and activate the receptors. Blocker: deactivate the receptors. But look like the neurotransmitters so it will lock in with the receptors. How to alter the system o You can increase its rate of activity or you can decrease. So you can decrease or increase the functional activity of a system. o Increase
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