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Midterm - Chapter 1.doc

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Ted Petit

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Neuropsychology Module 1.1 – Introduction to Neuropsychology The 10% Myth: - The myth that humans only use 10% of their brain is not true What Is Neuropsychology? - Psychology is an attempt to describe, explain, and predict behaviour - Neuropsychologists attempt to describe, explain, predict, and change behaviour - Neuropsychology is the study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain - Clinical neuropsychology: concerned with psychological assessment, management, and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury - Experimental neuropsychology: focuses on how human behaviour arises from brain activity, which includes explaining how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural components (AKA cognitive neuropsychology or cognitive neuroscience) Heart, Mind, and Brain – The Early History of Neuropsychology: - Empedocles believed that the heart was the source of human behaviour (cardiocentric hypothesis) - Aristotle believed that the heart was the source of thought and sensation, and that the brain served as a radiator, cooling the blood - Hippocrates and Galen argued that the brain is responsible for different functions (cephalocentric hypothesis) - Cardiac hypothesis in popular culture - Trephination The Mind-Body Problem: - Descartes believed that voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational, decision-making soul (pineal gland), and that the CSF that surrounded the pineal gland was important because it was necessary for the animal spirit’s actions - Dualism: the mind and body are separate but interacting entities - Monism: the mind and body are unitary Module 1.2 – The Recent History of Neuropsychology Cataloging the Effects of Lesions: - Legallois discovered that lesioning the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathing - Bell and Magendie studied the nerves that excited the spinal cord - They observed that the dorsal roots (nerves that enter from the back of the spinal cord) had sensory functions, whereas the ventral roots (nerves that leave from the front of the spinal cord) had motor functions - Gall believed that there were distinct cognitive abilities that could be localized on the brain, and believed that the cortex behaved like muscles, in that increased size
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