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Human Brain and Behaviour Lecture Notes Final.docx

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Ted Petit

Human Brain and Behaviour Lectures Lecture 1 September 10 , 2012 Nervous system: o Central nervous system = brain + spinal cord o Peripheral nervous system = nerves Little difference between the brain and the spinal cord o They are one 3 major classifications of the brain: o Hindbrain Medulla- responsible for basic life processes Heartbeat, respiration If you damage this you're dead! Cerebellum- sensory motor integration Balance o Midbrain Reticular formation Damage to this = coma Sleep wakeful dysfunctions o Forebrain Thalamus (dorsal) top of head Acts as a large relay center Hypothalamus (ventral) below thalamus Controls functions that keep the individual alive o Eating, drinking, fighting for food, sexual reproduction Limbic System o Number of brain structures (not a single structure) Hippocampus, amygdala Deal with emotions/emotionality Primitive organisms dont have one Animals with larger limbic systems have increased emotional repertoire i.e. dog vs turtle cerebral cortex- part of forebrain o also known as neo cortex (newest part of brain) dolphins have the biggest cortex o responsible for intellectual function Phylogenetic Development cerebral cortex was a huge change in evolution allowing for intelligence the size of a brain structure that controls a function is directly proportional to the need of that organism ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny o your development mimics that of your development as an evolutionary species most anterior structure of the brain= cortex o covers up the whole brain Triune theory of brain function MacLeans theory 3 brains in one o 1. Reptilian Brain brain stem Controls basic life processes Found even as far back as reptiles We have not lost parts, weve just added on o 2. Paleo-Mammalian/ Old Mammalian Limbic system Added on emotion o 3. New mammalian Cerebral cortex Lecture 2 September 17 , 2012 Stroke/tumor in cerebral cortex or brain stem= death Human brain is not smooth ; not enough space in the skull o Starts out smooth though turns wrinkly as it grows in the same space 1. Sulci (sulcus)- the valleys in the brain o If theyre big= fissure 2. Gyri (gyrus) the mountains in the brain The brain is divided down the centre into two hemispheres (almost identical- right brain and left brain) o Right brain- controls left side/ receives sensory information from left o Left brain- control right side/receives info from right Hemispheres are divided by the longitudinal fissure or longitudinal sulcus However, they are still connected via the corpus collosum o Each part of the hemisphere is connected with the adjacent part on the other hemisphere There are 3 main sulci: o The longitudinal sulcus- divides hemispheres o The central sulcus- divides brain front to back (frontal lobe from parietal) o The sylvian sulcus or lateral sulcus- runs up the side of the brain; separates the temporal lobe The cerebral cortex has 4 lobes o Each love has two different types of cortex Primary- basic input/output function of that lobe, primary receiving area Associational- higher order functioning, more complex. More recently evolved then more primitive organisms. Thought process and higher ratio of associational cortex to primary (in more evolved animals) Broadman- mapped and numbered the brain The Lobes FRONTAL LOBE o Starts in the front of the brain and goes back until it reaches the central suclus o Primary cortex function- motor (muscle) controlits what makes you move! o Planning and inhibition of inappropriate behaviour (delayed gratification) o Associational cortex function- long term planning (life goals) o Primary area: 4, 6 broadmans area Pre-central gyrus- right in front of central sulcus o Primary motor strip- everything in front of pre-central gyrus is associational Not randomly places o Motor homunculus- little man in the brain Organization of brain function PARIETAL LOBE o Starts at the central sulcus until it hits the occipital lobe o Primary cortex function- receive info from non-specialized sensory or somatosensory senses o Post-central gyrus is the primary strip The rest is associational o Broadman areas 3,1,2 = primary somatosensory strip o Also has a homunculus o Genitals are on the sensory strip, dont need much motor control o In the homunculus, the pictures are big/small depending on how important that area is to humans o Associational cortex function: very complex, deals with body sensations (well return to this later) OCCIPITAL LOBE o Just behind the parietal and temporal lobes o Primary function: receive and process info from the eyes (vision) o Broadman area 17= primary receptive area for vision o Uses vision to distinguish objects o Associational cortex function: higher order; understanding what the object is and what it does TEMPORAL LOBE o Just below the sylvian fissure o Primary cortex function: hearing and listening Receives info from ears o Uses audition primarily for speech o Primary receptive area = 41 Dorsal posterior portion of the lobe (back, top The centre of the brain isnt solid o Cerebro-spinal fluid Ventricles are continuous with the spinal/central canal o Lateral ventricles (2 of them)- one on each side of the hemispheres o Third ventricle- deethinside the thalamus, fluid flows through the cerebral aquaduct into the 4 ventricle o Fourth ventricle- found in the hindbrain near the cerebellum, connects to spinal canal Squished ventricles can look like Alzheimers or dementia How the blood gets to the brain Internal caroid artery- main supply of blood into the brain or the vertebral artery. 2 vertebral arteries join together at the base of the brain to form the basilar artety Comes together at the circle of willis o Like a roundabout o Separates basilar and caroid artery o Prevents damage because if the right/left side loses blood from a tumor or plaque, blood from the other side can go to the area that is lacking blood Circle of willis arteries (one on each side) o Anterior cerebral artery Supplies the anterior, medial and dorsal portion of the brain o Middle cerebral artey Comes up the sylvian fissure Supplies the lateral portion o Posterior cerebral artery Posterior, medial and ventral portion of the brain Three protective membranes for the brain (meninges) DURA dura matter o Thick fibrous layer o Very tough outermost layer ARACHNOID MEMBRANE o Middle layer, very spongy o Blood vessels run beneath this layer Run in the sub-arachnoid space (important when blood vessels break) PIA MATTER o Very fine, thin delicate layer o Adheres to the surface of the brain o Follows all the sulci and gyri Meningitis- affect these three layers, not the brain itself. Signs: deafness, headaches
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