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PSYC02H3 (13)
Anna Nagy (8)
Midterm

midterm 2 CHEAT SHEET.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC02H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Semester
Fall

Description
GRAMMAR - Transitional words time links (then, next, after, while, since), cause-effect links (therefore, consequently, as a result), addition links (in addition, furthermore, similarly), contrast links (but, conversely, nevertheless, however, although) - Use who for human beings; use that or which for nonhuman beings and for things o Ex: the students who completed the task successfully were rewarded OR the instructions that were included in the experiment were complex, NOT the students that completed the task successfully were rewarded) - If you can substitute he or she, who is correct; if you can substitute him or her, whom is correct o Ex: Name the participant who you found achieved scores above the median. [You found he or she achieved scores above the median.] o Ex: The participant whom I identified as the youngest dropped out. [I identified him or her as the youngest.] - Misplaced modifiers  Because of their placement in a sentence, misplaced modifiers ambiguously or illogically modify a word. You can eliminate misplaced modifiers by placing an adjective or an adverb as close as possible to the word it modifies o Ex: Using this procedure, the investigator tested the participants OR The investigator tested the participants who were using the procedure, NOT The investigator tested the participants using this procedure. [The sentence is unclear about whether the investigator or the participants used this procedure.] o Ex: On the basis of this assumption, we developed a model … , OR Based on this assumption, the model ... , NOT Based on this assumption, we developed a model. ... [This construction says, "we are based on an assumption."] - Place only next to the word or phrase it modifies (ex: these data provide only a partial answer, NOT these data only provide a partial answer) - Use while to link events occurring simultaneously; otherwise, use although, and, or but in place of while (ex: Although these findings are unusual, they are not unique, NOT While these findings are unusual, they are not unique) - Since is more precise when it is used to refer only to time (to mean "after that"); otherwise, replace it with because (ex: Data for two participants were incomplete because these participants did not report for follow-up testing, NOT Data for two participants were incomplete since these participants did not report for follow-up testing) - Never use both with as well as: The resulting construction is redundant (ex: The names were difficult to pronounce as well as to s,eNOT The names were difficult both to pronounce as well as to spell) PUNCTUATION - Insert one space afte (a) commas, colons, and semicolons; (b) periods that separate parts of a reference citation; and (c) periods of the initials in personal names (ex: J. R. Zhang). Exception: Do not insert a space after internal periods in abbreviations (e.g., a.m., i.e.,U.S.), including identity-concealing labels for study participants (FI.M.), or around colons in ratios. Space twice after punctuation marks at the end of a sentence. - Use periods withinitials of names (J. R. Smith), abbreviation for United States when it is used as an adjective (U.S. Navy), identity-concealing labels for study participants (F.I.M.), Latin abbreviations (a.m., cf., i.e., vs.), and reference abbreviations (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., p. 6, F Supp.) - Do NOT use a comma to separate parts of measurement (ex: 8 years 2 months OR 3 min 40 s) - Semicolon (ex: The participants in the first study were paid; those in the second were unpaid OR The color order was red, yellow, blue; blue, yellow, red; or yellow, red, blue) - Use parentheses to set off structurally independent elements [ex: The patterns were statistically significant (see Figur],to enclose statistical values [ex: was statistically significant (p = .031)], back to back [ex: (e.g., defensive pessimism; Norem & Cantor, 1986)], etc. - A sentence only requires a subject and a verb (ex: She walked.) - Use a question mark at the end of a sentence and only when question asked is direct (ex: “what time is it?” vs. indirect - “the scientist wondered if his work was published) - Semi-colon has expectation and elastic energy, propels the reader in sometimes unexpected directions towards more information o use a semi-colon with a transitional word (moreover, therefore, then, however, nonetheless) to signal close contrast and connection - colon is the exact opposite of a semi-colon: signals for the reader to go ahead along lines already subtly laid down - dash says aloud what the parentheses whisper; both hold interruptions too extravagant for a pair of commas to hold SENTENCE STRUCURE  3.23 - Parallel construction  (ex: The results show that such changes could be made without affecting error rate and that latencies continued to decrease over time OR We recorded the difference between the performance of subjects who completed the first task and the performance of those who completed the second task OR The names were difficult both to pronounce and to spell OR The names were difficult to pronounce as well as to spell… **Never use both with as well as: The resulting construction is redundant … OR Neither the responses to the auditory stimuli nor the responses to the tactile stimuli were repeated OR The respondents either gave the worst answer or gave the best answer OR The respondents gave either the worst answer or the best answer) o They wanted peace without dishonour, NOT they wanted peace without being disgraced; between 2.5 and 4.0 years of age NOT between 2.5-4.0 years of age (parallelism) ** M/C - In active voice, the subject of the sentence acts, performing the action represented by the verb (ex: the essay argued for the necessity…). In passive voice, the subject of the sentence is acted upon, receiving the action represented by the word (ex: the necessity of using passive voice was argued for by the essay) - Active voice creates sentences with greater clarity, concision, and directness, it is preferred in almost all kinds of writing; passive voice is used to create an impression of objectivity and to put emphasis on the facts rather than scientists - Misplaced modifiers: a word or phrase in a sentence that causes confusion because it is located too far from the word(s) to which it refers (ex: the woman hugged the new puppy and was exhausted vs. the exhausted woman hugged the new puppy) o One word modifiers often cause confusion (ex: almost, even, just, hardly, nearly, merely, simply, only) - Dangling modifiers: a word or phrase that modifies another word or phrase that has not been stated clearly within the sentence (ex: her parents put the spider in the jar and took her to the hospital, where she spent four days OR having finished all his PSYC02 homework, the hockey game was turned on vs. having finished all his PSYC02 homework, Lee turned on the hockey game) - Unnecessary qualifiers (ex: they devised a very elegant hypothesis… vs. they designed an elegant hypothesis…) - Analysis/analyses, appendix/appendices, criterion/criteria, datum/data, hypothesis/hypotheses, phenomenon/phenomena, stimulus/stimuli - Subject-verb agreement (this phenomenon is of interest, these phenomena are of interest OR the data indicate, the datum indicates…) - Imply means to signify, to hint; Infer means to reach a conclusion, derive a meaning or interpret a statement (ex: his letter im
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