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Anna Nagy

PSYB01FinalExamNoteschapters1114NaomiAlphonsusCHAPTER11SingleCaseQuasiExperimentalandDevelopmentalResearchIn an experimental design where the responses on dependent variables are compared to determine the effect of the independent variable IV on the dependent variables DV the design is said to have high internal validity we are very confident that the IV caused the observed responses on the DVThis design is the instance in which the effect of an IV must be inferred from an experiment with only one participant SINGLECASEEXPERIMENTALDESIGNSSinglecase experimental designs aka singlesubject designs both terms are interchangeableoInterest in this type of research was sparked from research on BF Skinners research on operant conditioning oResearch using this method is often seen in clinical counseling educational and other applied settings Single case experiments were developed from a need to determine whether an experimental manipulation had an effect on a single participant othe subjects behaviour is measured over time during a baseline control periodthe manipulation is then introduced during a treatment period and the subjects behaviour continues to be observedchange in the subjects behaviour from baseline to treatment is evidence for the effectiveness of the manipulation the problem is that there could be alternative explanations for the change other than the experimental treatment oex some other events may have coincided with the introduction of the treatment ReversalDesignsone method to show that the manipulation of the IV had an effect is to demonstrate the reversibility of manipulationa simple reversal design takes the following form oA baseline period B treatment period A baseline period This is called an ABA design it requires that behaviour be observed during the baseline control A period again during the treatment B period and also during a second baseline A period after the experimental treatment has been removed oIts sometimes called a withdrawal design in recognition of the fact that the treatment is removedwithdrawnoEx effect of a reinforcement procedure on a childs academic performance can be assessed with an ABA designof correct hwk could be measured each day during the baseline Reinforcement procedure would then be introduced where the child receives a old star for correct problems and theof stars would be accumulated and then exchanged for a prize at the end of the school yrThis treatment would then be discontinued during the second baseline A periodThe fact that behaviour changed when the treatment was introduced and reversed when the treatment was withdrawn is evidence for its effectiveness d 111 depicts a treatment that had a relatively dramatic impact on behaviouroSome treatments produce an immediate change in behaviour but many other variables take a longer time to show impact The ABA design can be greatly improved by extending it to an ABAB design in which the experimental treatment is introduced a second time or even to an ABABAB design that allows the experiment to be tested a third timeoThis is done to address 2 problems with the ABA reversal design A single reversal is not extremely powerful eveidence for the effectiveness of the treatment the observed reversal mightve been due to random fluctuation in the childs behaviour with regards to the examplethe treatment mightve happened to coincide with some other event that caused the change and the postevent reversal These possibilities are less likely if the treatment has been shown to have an effect 2 or more times The second problem is ethicalit doesnt seems right to end the design with the withdrawal of a treatment that may be very beneficial for the participant Barlow et al 2009 Using an ABAB design provides the opportunity to observe a second reversal when the treatment is introduced againsequence ends with treatment as oppose to withdrawalLogic of the reversal design can be applied to behaviours observed in a single sitting Note this is not in the 10E bookoEx the effectiveness of a procedure designed to increase use of designated drivers in a bar Theof bar patrons either serving as or being with a designated driver was recorded over a baseline period of 2 weeks A treatment to increase the use of designated drivers was then implemented during the treatment phase Designated drivers received a 5 gas card and the 2
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