false

by
OneClass7166

Department

Psychology

Course Code

PSYC11H3

Professor

Karen Dion

Description

CHAPTER 17 – DATA MANAGEMENT AND EXPLORATION
Data Management:
- Activities concerned with preparing data for analysis
- Involves putting the information generated by research into a form that can be subjected to
statistical analyses of one sort or another
- Involves ensuring that records are kept and the data are stored in such a way that they can be
referred to and used in the future
Rows: Represent units of analysis or cases (e.g. individuals who have been interviewed)
- A column is assigned to each variables about with data has been collected
To construct a data matrix, 3 questions need be addressed:
o 1. Variables or columns of the matrix must be defined
o 2. Unit of analysis in this particular study (Definition of rows of the matrix)
o 3. How values on specific variables are defined (what values are used to represent
different responses to each variable)
Errors of Generalization: Often occur when the unit of analysis is not the same level as the unit to which
we seek to generalize
- Units of analysis should be statistically significant
o The data from one case should not influence or have been influenced by the data
from another case
o Nominal units must be coded numerically for statistical analysis
o Must preserve rank order in coding scheme
E.g. We cannot use individual as the unit if all we have are group-level data
The Codebook:
- Is essential to guarantee that in the future the coded can be interpreted
- Organization of the data matrix and of all scoring procedures and coding decisions
- Codebook should be complete and detailed, listing names and locations of computer files
containing the data as well as coding decisions, the meaning of variable labels
Proofing Data: Verifying that the values in the data matrix are correct (essential step in the data
management process)
Steps To Data Management:
1) Data Collection
2) Codebook created
3) Data read into a statistical software package
4) Data analysis and interpretation
Goal of Data Analysis:
- Figure out what the data can tell us
- What those answers might be
- Future interesting questions
Frequency Distribution: When data are sorted, counted, and displayed from lowest to highest and total at
the end, with frequency and cumulative frequency
- Useful for looking at the shape of a distribution of data on a variable
Frequency Histogram: Placing values along the horizontal axis, the frequencies along the vertical axis
(grouping values together) Stem-And-Leaf Diagram: First, the first digits for all observed values are written in a column on the left
side of the diagram (stem), second digit of the number is written to the right of its stem (leaf)
Descriptive Statistics: Numbers that describe the different characteristics of a distribution of scores on a
variable
E.g. Central Tendency: Mean and median
Spread of a Distribution:
- Measure of spread = interquartile range (E.g. How far apart the twenty-fifth and seventy-fifth percentile
scores are)
Variance: The average squared difference between the cases in a distribution and he mean of a distribution
- How far in squared units the average case is from the mean
- Outliers have a big effect on mean and variance
Skewness: Another form of distribution looking at the direction in which the data is skewed (e.g. Positively
skewed = Long tail at the upper end)
Three Distributions:
1) Central tendency
2) Spread/variability
3) Skewness
- When outliers are present rely on median and inter-quartile range
CHAPTER 2 – EVALUATING SOCIAL SCIENCE THEORIES & RESEARCH
- Theory: Set of interrelated hypotheses that is used to explain a phenomenon and make predictions about
associations among constructs relevant to the phenomenon
Theory About Social Behaviour Has 3 Features:
1. Contains constructs that are of theoretical interest and that it attempts to explicate or account for in
some way
2. Describes associations among these constructs (frequently causal)
3. Incorporates hypothesized links between the theoretical constructs and observable variables that
can be used to measure the constructs
a. Links specify behaviours or other indicators used to conduct empirical research
Hypotheses: Comprised of statements about associations among constructs as well as between constructs
and obervable indicators
E.g. 1. Contact with members of other ethnic groups decreases prejudice when in equal status
settings
E.g. 2. The SAT or ACT is a valid measure of scholastic achievement
Productive Theory
- Falsifiable (can’t have a hypothesis that explains every possible outcome)
- States hypotheses as specifically as possible
- Is as parsimonious (cost-effective) as possible
- Addresses an important social phenomenon
- Is internally consistent e.g. The hypotheses do not contradict one another
- Is coherent and comprehensible
- Specifies its relevant constructs and how they are measured
- Agrees with what is already known about the topic - Explains data better than existing theories on the same topic
- Agrees with existing theories about related topics
- Generates new insights about the topic
- A theory must be productive or useful and address some important or significant phenomenon or social
behaviour that needs explication
- The theory must provide a plausible and empirically defensible explanation for that phenomenon (at a
particular historical moment)
- Theory must be consistent with both existing research findings and existing theories for related
phenomena
- Good theory offers new insights or offers the possibility of unforeseen implications
Measurement Research: Research designed to examine whether a given variable accurately or validly
measures a given construct
- Is conducted by examining whether two or more ways of measuring the same construct give

More
Less
Unlock Document

Related notes for PSYC11H3

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock DocumentJoin OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study

documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view

Continue

Continue
OR

By registering, I agree to the
Terms
and
Privacy Policies

Already have an account?
Log in

Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.