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Midterm

PSYC12-Midterm notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Winter

Description
Psychology of Prejudice Chapter 1: Intro to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice  Humans have a tendency to form groups  Membership can be restricted on the basis of special skills, family relations, gender, power, and a host of other factors o Forming such groups can make their daily lives easier: ex. Through division of labor among various groups in society order within society (eg. By government) led to longer, happier and more fulfilling lives so leads to idea that “groups are the basic building blocks of society”  Tendency to form groups isn’t unique to humans= basic part of nature that conveyed survival benefits (fighting off predators, raising offspring successfully) that withstood time and evolution o However disadvantages= mate competition, mate retention  People tend to show preferences for members of their own group over those of other groups o Even if membership is arbitrarily decided (random assignment to group A vs. group B= minimal group) o These preferences form the basis of prejudice= negative feelings about other groups and stereotypes= certain characteristics associated with other groups because outgroup members are perceived to be opposing to the ingroup’s welfare/values  Crimes driven by prejuidice o Wars: Spanish Inquisition, American Civil War, American slave trade, Holocaust, genocides in Rwanda and Yugoslavia o Recent crimes in America (while many believe that desegregation, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and affirmative action policies in hiring, have resulted in racism declining- only OVERT racism has declined:  1998- James Byrd Jr., killed for being black in Texas  1998- Matthew Sheppard, openly gay college student, beaten and frozen, died a few days later  2006- Trev Broudy, gay actor, attacked and now has permanent brain damage  Lippmann’s Stereotype o Originally the word was derived from a printing process where material is reproduced from a fixed cast o Lippmann- first used the word to describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms, and as having similar attributes, based on a common feature shared by each o Said we have “pictures” in our heads that serve as templates for us to simplify complicated info received from the world o Lippmann’s 2 correct ideas:  Stereotypes tell us what social info is important to perceive/disregard in our environment  We tend to confirm preexisting stereotypes by paying attention to stereotype- consistent info and disregarding inconsistent info  And research shows that content of stereotypes is largely determined by the culture we live in  Stereotyping: Bad to Neutral o First perceived as a negative, lazy way of perceiving social groups outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic cognition rigid thinking external sign of the stereotyper’s moral defectiveness o Allport moved away from including evaluative assessments of the “goodness” of stereotyping or those who stereotype o Eventually came to be known as a normal psychological process  Social-Cognitive Definition o Stereotype= ANY generalization about a group whether an observer (either a member of the stereotyped group or another observer) believes it is justified or not  By definition a generalization about a group is bound to be unjustified for some portion of the group members o Hamiltion/Trolier’s definition: a cognitive structure that contains the perceiver’s knowledge, beliefs and expectations about a human group= yet this is too broad= more similar to the definition of a schema (a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a concept including its attributes and relations among those attributes) o Schemas= broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of a stimulus, our expectations for the motives/behavior of the stimulus and our feelings toward the stimulus stereotypes are more specific and subsumed within a schema o Most used defintion today: stereotype= set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people= Ashmore + Del Boca defn  Cultural and Individual Stereotypes o Cultural stereotype= shared/community wide pattern of beliefs about other groups o Individual stereotype= beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group o Cultural stereotypes and individual stereotypes of a member within the cultural group are not necessarily the same o Question: which one predicts future behavior/ actions?  Is a Stereotype an Attitude? o Attitude= general evaluation of some object= has 3 components: behavioral, affective, cognitive o most researchers agree that stereotypes represent the COGNITIVE portion of an intergroup attitude, while prejudice represents the AFFECTIVE and discrimination the BEHAVIORAL o so stereotype is not an attitude as an intergroup attitude is composed of one’s thoughts/beliefs about, feelings toward and behavior toward a particular group  Positive vs. Negative Stereotypes o Allport- doesn’t regard stereotypes as being good or bad o Stereotypes= merely generalizations= can be neutral, positive (Asians are smart) or negative (we tend to be more aware of these)  Defining Prejudice o Gardner Prejudice= prejudgment about something o Prejudice more specifically can suggest an EVALUATION (either positive or negative) about a stimulus  Originally seen as a negative affect abandoned “prejudice-as-emotion” definition prejudice as an attitude with all three ABC components  Prejudice as an Attitude  Found that the best predictor of negative outgroup prejudice is NOT negative feelings about an outgroup but rather a LACK of positive emotions  Study= white college students towards various minority groups= found that affect and behavior were strongest predictors of group attitudes= suggest intergroup interaction is most dependent on “how good people feel, not how well they think of group members”  Idea= prejudice is most likely to be displayed towards a disadvantaged group when that group tries to move into roles for which they are believed by the majority group (favored group) to be unqualified  Criticism of Prejudice as an attitude= o Attitude/evaluation is NOT the same as affect and according to Allport prejudice is an affect-based reaction to a stimulus group o Notion that prejudice has the ABC components is problematic because those components are not always consistent low prejudice indivds can be aware of stereotypes about outgroup, expressed attitudes don’t always match behaviors  Prejudice as a “Social Emotion” o Self-categorization theory= states that people view themselves as a member of a social category/group (racial, ethnic, religious group)  So intergroup interactions will make salient particular group categorizations Ex. Interacting with someone of a different religious belief makes self religious categorization most salient OR interacting with a different nationality makes own nationality category most salient  Enhance outgroup as homogeneous o Appraisal= set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion emotion in appraisal theory is triggered by an assessment of the adaptive significance of self-relevance of the people//events in one’s environment  Smith’s conceptualization of prejudice= o Says its too vague to say prejudice is positive/negative as emotional reactions to outgroups are very specific (anger, fear, disgust, serenity) o Traditional conception of prejudice sates that if we are prejudiced against another group (ex. Lawyers) we should react with the same negative affect to all members of the group every time we encounter then BUT many prejudiced people can dislike the group as a whole and most of its members, but have genuinely positive attitudes/affects towards a specific member of the group (friend, neighbor, celebrity)  Explanation= subtyping= prejudiced individs maintain a negative affect towards a group but creates a separate category (Ex. Friend, coworker) for specific members, thereby allowing the perceiver’s stereotypes to persist in the face of what would otherwise be a stereotype disconfirming case  So Smith says that how we react to other people doesn’t depend on the group member they are, but who a person is, in what context and how we appraise the individ in terms of our goals so how we react to any given outgroup member depends on: o What self-category is salient for us at the moment o In what context the interaction occurs (competitive, cooperative) o How that person helps/hinders our movement towards salient personal/group goals a that time **provided a much richer conceptualization of prejudice than was previously proposed  Today prejudice is most commonly measured via standardized self-report measures that assess the endorsement of statements about the characteristics of a group, feelings about the group and behavior toward the group and its members  Despite very little consensus on definitions, researchers generally agree that prejudice: o Occurs between groups o Involves an evaluation (positive/negative) of a group o Is a biased perception of a group o Is based on real/imagined characteristics of a group  Prejudice= biased evaluation of a group, based on real/imagined characteristics of the group member= final definition for the book  LINK BETWEEN STEREOTYPING AND PREJUDICE  Supported by balance theory and theory of reasoned action  Balance theory= one’s attitudes, behavior and evaluation (and affect) toward another person should be cognitively consistent or else one experiences a state of “imbalance” which is an aversive state of cognitive arousal= “cognitive dissonance” o In this model it could never be the case that the beliefs (stereotypes) about the group would not be consistent with one’s attitudes (prejudices) toward the group  Wicker found little relation between attitudes and single acts however so Fishbein and Ajzen argued that the relationship between attitude and subseqeutn attitude-relevant behavior is much stronger if on “aggregates” multiple behaviors into a single behavioral measure (because many other factors can play a role in single acts) and in this way behavioral measure is much more likely to show consistency= theory of reasoned action  Eventually Dovidio found using statistical analysis that stereotyping and prejudice were strongly related EARLY PERSPECTIVES IN STEREOTYPING REASEARCH  Measurement  Katz- Braly= firsty study with empirical focus on stereotyping= investigated content of the stereotypes that Whites had regarding 10 different ethnic groups= students at Princeton were given a list of adjactives and asked to specify which adjectives were associated with various ethnic groups= content of the stereotype therefore consisted of those adjectives that were most frequently indicated for a specific group  Attitudes predict and are related to subsequent attitude-relevant behavior= so it is important to be able to social psychology to be able to measure attitude and then also understand the best ways to measure stereotyping and prejuidice  Individual Differences on Stereotyping  Early focus on understanding stereotyping by examining facto
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