PsyC12 mid Review.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Origin of Stereotypes Stereotypes—Cognitive  Categorization  Groups Stereotypes—Environmental Media portrayals—Romer, Jamieson, deCoteau--Reality vs. News Media portrayal  18% of white perpetrators against blacks and 10% of black perpetrators against whites  Blacks are victims 80% of time but are only shown as being victims 22% on the news while whites are shown as victims 24% of the time  Even though there’s really only 10% of black perpetrators on white victims, on the news, however, when the perpetrator was black, the victim shown was white 42% of the time Parental Influence—Sinclair, Dunn, & Lowery  When the child identifies with the parent and the parent’s prejudice is low, so is the child’s. Same for high  When the child does not identify with the parent and the parents prejudice is low, the child’s is high and vice versa Stereotypes—Socio-cultural & Motivational  Motivation to maintain positive social identity  People on the top say that they are there because they deserve it, they achieved high to get there and they say that people below them are there because they didn’t work as hard as they did to achieve a higher status like them  Socio-Cultural—stereotypes are really culture-specific; people try to conform to their culture Maintenance of Stereotypes Cognitive  Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen—Stereotypes is a cognitive tool allowing us to analyze social environment efficiently o Those who stereotyped did better on the multiple choice test on that Indonesian passage o So, stereotypes helped them save cognitive resources; remembered traits better about a person when given a stereotype label as well as focus on an extraneous task (MC test)  Bruner & Goodman—children estimated the size of various discs and then coins (coins size matched with disc size) o Coins worth more were seen as bigger compared to coins worth less  Hugenberg & Bodenhausen—Confirmation Bias o Prejudiced people tended to see anger expressed longer or emerge sooner on black faces than white faces  Word, Zanna, & Cooper—Self-Fulfilling Prophecies o White interviewers treat blacks differently o Attitudes/expectations can cause another person to act in a way that confirms their expectations Motivational  Looking “down” at someone else, makes you look good in comparison  Fein & Spencer  Want to maintain status quo Suppression of Stereotypes  Wagner–Mental Control o Operating Process: takes a lot of energy to control mind (prevent stereotypes) which causes person to have less energy o Monitoring Process: resource-free, scans mind for stereotypes o Under load, OP fails and MP continues and results in opposite of intended thought  Macrae, Bodenhausen, Milne, & Jetten—Suppression—Lexical Decision Task o The LDT measures whether a construct (e.g. a stereotype) is activated o More activation= shorter reaction times o People who suppress are faster to respond to words that relate to the suppressed stereotype o Suppression makes it worse Modern Racism (Conservatives)  Don’t consider themselves racist  Disguised as negativity towards all who oppose traditional values Aversive Racism (Liberal)  Two conflicting beliefs o Negative stereotypes derived from culture & cognition o Egalitarian values, belief in meritocracy, justice  Consider themselves egalitarian and are unaware of their implicit bias Automaticity & Control in ster
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