Table of Contents
1. Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice.
A. Defining Stereotype.
1. Lippman's "Stereotype".
2. Stereotyping: From bad to neutral.
3. The social-cognitive definition.
4. Cultural and individual stereotypes.
5. Is a stereotype an attitude?
6. Positive vs. negative stereotypes.
B. Defining prejudice.
1. Prejudice as negative affect.
2. Prejudice as an attitude.
3. Prejudice as a "social emotion".
C. The Link Between Stereotyping and Prejudice.
D. Early Perspectives in Stereotyping Research.
2. Individual differences in stereotyping.
3. Group-level explanations.
E. The Social Cognition Revolution.
1. Cognitive consistency theories.
2. Attribution theory.
F. The Social Cognition View of Stereotyping and Prejudice.
2. The cognitive miser.
3. The motivated tactician.
G. Why the Emphasis on African-American / White Intergroup Relations?
2. Origin and Maintenance of Stereotypes and Prejudice.
A. The formation of stereotypes.
2. Why we categorize. 3. Types of categorization.
4. In-groups and out-groups.
5. Social learning.
a. Childhood intergroup contact.
b. Value transmission in families.
c. Influence of stereotypes on cognition in children.
d. Stereotypes and prejudice in the media.
6. Implicit theories.
7. The efficiency of stereotypes.
B. How and why stereotypes are maintained.
1. Selective attention to stereotype-relevant information.
3. Illusory correlations.
C. Origins of prejudice.
1. Social identity theory.
2. Optimal distinctiveness theory.
3. Scapegoat theory.
4. Relative deprivation.
5. Realistic conflict theory.
3. Feeling and Thinking in the Activation and Application of Stereotypes.
1. Types of intergroup affect.
a. Chronic racial affect.
b. Episodic racial affect.
c. Incidental affect.
2. Influence of positive affect.
3. Effects of negative affect.
4. Motivational vs. cognitive capacity deficits.
1. Implicit cognition.
2. Subliminal messages.
3. Implicit memory.
4. Implicit stereotyping. 5. Implicit Association Test.
6. Stereotype suppression.
a. Thought suppression.
b. Suppressing stereotypes.
C. Issues for Future Research.
4. The Prejudiced Personality: Are some people more likely.
to feel prejudice?
A. Psychodynamic perspectives.
2. Character-conditioned prejudice.
3. Problems with the psychodynamic approach.
B. Right-wing authoritarianism.
1. Committed vs. consensual religiousity.
2. Extrinsic vs. intrinsic religious orientation.
3. Religion as quest.
D. Need for cognition.
E. Need for structure.
F. Need for cognitive closure.
G. Social dominance orientation.
5. Old-fashioned vs. Modern Prejudice.
A. Where have all the bigots gone?
1. From Katz & Braly (1933) to civil rights, and beyond.
2. Are low-prejudiced people really low-prejudiced?
B. Modern Racism.
C. Symbolic Racism.
D. Aversive Racism.
E. Summary of Contemporary Theories of Prejudice.
F. Measuring Stereotyping and Prejudice.
1. The Self-Report Questionnaire.
2. The Bogus-Pipeline.
3. Measures of Stereotypes.
4. Measuring Stereotyping. 5