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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Winter

Description
Lec 6: Experiencing prejudice There seems to be group preferences in dolls in young children, does this mean that black children don’t like themselves? It doesn’t really reflect self esteem Change of perspective: Studying prejudice from the targets point of view is also important  Young gay men ( shepperd) living in miomi: killed and tied to a gate, Mathew shepperd  Crime motivated by hate Stigma  Possession of a trati or characteristics that is devalued by society  Stigmatized have spoiled identity  Are discriminated against Types of stigma  Abominations of body o Something about your body you have no control over o Short individuals, Obese individual walking down, you giggle and laugh  Blemishes of character o Things like dementia, mental illness, anorexia, personality traits  Tribal markers o Gender, age, these are the things we typically talk about in class Can men claim discrimination?  Yes they are Identity threat model ( MAJOR & O’BRIEN) There are three things that reveals whether someone makes identity threat 1) where you are, if you are in Africa and your black, where you are determines collective representations 2) situational cue: what is in the immediate environment, whats around you about your identity 3) personal characteristics: are these group stigma conscious, high or low in self esteem, are they identified with their groups. What are you like and how is the way you are effect threat appraisal These are all the things that could determine if someone makes identity threat appraisal Once you made identity threat appraisal, you got two sort of responses that could occur 1. involuntary responses: stress response when you make identity threat appraisal 2. voluntary responses- coping with threat, blaming discrimination, limit social comparisons, disidentification from a group outcome of stereotype threat appraisal: how you feel, ur mental and physical health Identity threat appraisal: am I being judged because of my group? Am I making an appraisal of threat Stigma and self esteem  stigma doesn’t always lead what you expect it to lead to, we expect that it would lead to lower self esteem, reflected appraisal ( the extent to how I feel is a mirror of how others see me) and it may also be because of self fulfilling prophecy, I may be the bad person they think I am giving the norm of society  stigmatized people have the same or even higher self esteem- this is not true for all groups but it is true for african americans o so what are the responses they are engaging in to protect themselves from feeling like that o stigma can buffer self esteem  affirmative action ???  people go through mental gymnastics to protect their self esteem and thus since they use defense mechanisms they have an even higher self esteem Stigma can have three effects  1. Attributional ambiguity- did I not get the job because I am not good? Or I didn’t go to the good schools? Didn’t prepare enough with job application? o There is ambiguity of why things happen to you o People who belong to a stigmatized group have an extra attributional ambiguity that others don’t have an its their groups; maybe I didn’t get the job because I was stigmatized ( they discriminated against me). Extra layer of ambiguity helps you even more to protect your self esteem  2. Disidentification: its disconnecting your self esteem from a specific domain, stopping to care about certain domains in which you or your group doesn’t do too well. o There is a stigmatization about women being bad in math, so when we do bad in math we tell ourself meh I don’t even like math whocares. They disidentify from that domain, this is dangerous, they deprieve themselves from a domain that they might actucally be good at  3. Limit to ingroup social comparisons o when I receive negative feedback I compare myself with other members of my ingroups  outcome of limiting yourself to ingroup memebers is that you have segregated environments, it involved protection of self esteem, it allows you to avoid painful environment, and you tend to have accurate self evaulations because atleast now your comparing with people you like or are in your ingroup.  All three mentioned above (1-3) help you feel good about yourself when bad things happen, this leads to not having low self esteem when you really should. STUDY:  CROCKER et al. 1991: Hypothesis: Stigmatized can protect self esteem by attributing negative feedback to prejudice o Black people were brought to the lab to become friends with white person they are gonna meet. Particiapnts are put in one room and the person they are gonna become friends with is in a different room, there is a window and the blinds are up or down between the individuals o The blinds are down the race of their to be friends is not known but when the blinds are up they do know  Dependent variables are: attributions to discrimination, self esteem Results:  Overall people blame discrimination when they receive negative feedback than when they do positive feedback o When they receive negative feedback they say ya they are discriminating against me in both whether they are seen or unseen categories.  When they receive positive or negative feedback, the people blame discrimination more when they are seen than when they are unseen o This makes sense cus how can you blame discrimination if your not seen  Self esteem change from baseline is a function of feedback and visibility o When people get negative feedback and they are unseen they feel bad about themselves, but when they are seen they don’t show differences in self esteem from their baseline  When they are unseen and they receive positive feedback they feel good about themselves. But when they are seen they feel bad about themselves, because they think they give me positive feedback cus they feel bad cus I am black.  There is a opposite relationship between negative and positive feedbacks and self esteem  Affirmative action is good but it could make you feel guilty, cus when your hired by a company and you’re a women you might feel guilty if you know its not ur talent that got u hired if you think its because you’re a women and you got hired your self esteem might decrease.  If you receive positive feedback but there is ambiguity as to why you received this positive feedback and you blame stigmatization being the reason, that the fact that you received positive or negative feedback doesn’t even matter anymore, it could make you feel bad  Attribution and discrimination could buffer self esteem from negative feedback o People discount feedback and don’t feel bad after negative events because you think its them and not you  Attribution and discrimination can hurt self esteem after positive feed back if you believe affirmative action is the reason behind the positive feedback CROCKER ET AL FOUND THAT:  People make attributions to prejudice when their race is known !!!!  After positive feedback, blacks feel worse about themselves ONLY when their race is known to the other person giving feedback if its not known they actually feel good about themselves. According to Major & O’Brien  Volitional responses does not contribute to threat appraisal it’s a product and not what contributes to threat appraisal ( look at the model diagram) Personal Characteristics  one personal characteristic that would lead you to make more threat appraisal is group identification o you connect with your group a lot more o when your highly identified with your group your more salient to threat to your group than if your not  domain identification o stereotype that women aren’t good in math but if you really love math your more likely to be affected by identity threats Stigma consciousness:  the ex convict is high in stigma consciousness  being sensitive to possibility of being evaluated on the basis of stigmatized group membership  some people view the world through the lens that their group is the target and others are out to get them  self esteem doesn’t determine if you make identity threat appraisal STUDY: being high in stigma consciousness leading to threats to their social identity This is known as uncle leo phenomenon  reaction time: longer reaction time; name the colour don’t read the words Results: * : people were very fast to name the colour of the furniture words but when the worlds were sexist words, women high in stigma consciousness reacted slow to the colour naming ability o they were predisposded to perceive threats in their environment  KAIser et al study conclusion: women high in Social consciousness are preconciously aware of threat to their social identity Lecture 7 Psychological assessment SAT: measures developed academic abilities VIDEO: Cognitive tests Personality tests: non cognitive parts of personality Projection tests: measures mental and emotional problems MMPI test: manisota something test  Tests results were tested in terms of mental age (regardless of their actual chronological age)  IQ: ratio of mental age to chronological age* 100 o Measured inherited intelligence  What makes a test valuable is to measure what it is your interested in measuring  We must Assess both the tests itself and how its used and misused Stereotype threat:  Intelligence is a dynamic cognitive process  There is low correlation between practical intelligence and IQ tests IDENTITY THREAT MODEL OF STIGMA KNOW IT WELL!!!!!  people have a decision whether they make an appraisal of threat or not and their decision is based on a number of factors and the prodeuce of that identity threat appraisal is volitional responses and nonvolitional responses What does the data reveal about stereotypes  Number above zero means male perform better than females o There is a difference favouring girls in elementary schools but as we go up there is a large difference favouring men  There is a difference favouring whites over blacks in terms of IQ averages Genetics:  Intelligence is highly heritable  If you are smart, likely your siblings are smart  High correlation between a parents IQ and the childs IQ  0.47 between a parent and child ( but 0 between two unrelated people)  monozygotic twins- share 100% of DNA with one another, fathernal twins are no different than other siblings, only 50% of shared genes between themselves and their twin o there is not good data because their environments are the same as well so we cant tell if the difference is due to genetics of environment  so we do a study about twins reared apart, and its seen that monozygotic twins reared apart are more similar than fraternal twins reared apart o thus biology makes a difference  IQ of children related more to biological mother and less to that of the adopted mother Environment  IQ of identical twins reared apart is less related than those reared in similar environments  IQ of fraternal twins are more related than the IQ of regular siblings  IQ of adopted children are more similar to one another than two strangers o This must be due to the environmental factor  Impoverished environments related to lower IQ Nature and nurture both contribute to intelligence Genetics play a role Heritability index= -0.5 (may be as high as 0.65); 50% of variance in intelligence is due to genes If within a group differences has genetic component, perhaps between group difference has genetic component too Lets say 50% Is determined by genes, so can we say 50% of IQ between black and white are due to genes? NO! between group differences may be caused by totally different factors than within group differences Why are there group differences? We don’t know yet Are tests unfair?  are tests culturally biased? o External biased: does this thing predict the same thing for different groups o There is a correlation between IQ tests, SAQ tests and performance in university. o For any given level of performance, its predicting worst performance for blacks in collage than for whites, there is something going on in collage – external bias – its not predicting the same thing for different people o Internal biased: measures the contents itself, some groups do better than others because of the items alone  SES and IQ are positively related o A better test could be to match black and whites in terms of environments  Blacks who are adopted has a high IQ than those not adopted o Differences in black and white diminished when SES matched, unfortunately there is still some differences remaining  Its very hard to truly match environments Resolution:  When tests are culturally matched the black and white gap diminishes  When environments matched, the black and white gap diminishes  But…. When matched on ability and preparation, difference, became smaller but still remained o The small difference that remains is genetics!  If you want to create a GRE test that is verbal how can you completely emliminate culture Stereotype Threat  Presumes that there are stereotypes about people and their intellectual abilities.  ST is the discomfort individuals feel when they are at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about their group o Can result in poor intellectual performance  Ex: When a person walks into a room and she is black she might think that others think that she is black and she might be treated differently. They start worrying about how others are gonna perceive them.  A women going into an engineering class has to deal with an additional threat and that is making the women gender look good, this could distract from performance.  Stereotype threat is based on 3 psychological principle o Impression management: people want to think well of themselves andhave others share that view o Choking effect: paradixcal effect of not wanting to perform badly o Disidentification: redefining self so threatening domain is not part of self concept: the idea that after you’ve experienced threats, and coping with others notion of what you are good at or not. You tell yourself you don’t like math, you leave the stereotype threat environment and this effects you in a negative way to not feel uncomfortable STUDY:  Hypothesis: when negative race stereotypes are activated, black students will underperform  RESULTS: o Diagnostic test: standard condition (told this test will test your ability): you see the typical black and white performance- black performing less than white o Non-diagnostic study: told that this test will not test ur ability: the results are similar between blacks and whites  Only situational explanation is possible here When tests is described as diagnostic is threatening to black students: this is because the diagnostic condition will activate the negative stereotypes in black people and they end up doing worse Word Completion Test  are people going to make more stereotypical activation or non stereotypical activations Results:  stereotype activation is a function of race and test diagnosticity  black are thinking about race when thinking about diagnostic tests  making black students vulnerable to negative intelligence stereotypes depressed their intellectual performance o this is because it offers a situational explanation to black-white test gap, even when ability is matched, situations can hinder performance  Lec 8: Differences betwee
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