PSYC12- lec 9-done.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Lecture 9—Ageism & Sexism ( Advanced Social Psychology) Ageism • I clicker = males only • Respond the following on what u personally believe • Women make worse managers than men o Yes no I have no clue o 32% said yes though • If I needed a lawyer I’d prefer a male ( vs. female ) lawyer o Yes no I have no clue 50% yes , no 38 o doesn’t mean anything , strictly speaking its sexism – discrimination based on gender o Its still discrimination but it’s ≠ as strong o Maybe I got arrested for male prob , or I like males better • everyone • A 70 year old man would be a worse manager than a 45 year old man o Yes no = its split o All kinds of reasons , depends on job o Sales clothing manager at H and M = prob 70 y old man ≠ as in touch ≠ as good at selling things o Like sinister things = 70 is discompotnat , smell , don’t remember as well • if I needed a layer , I’d prefer a 45 y old man than a 70 year old man o Split but ↑ saying 45 over 75 o Interesting cuz 70Y = better cuz older , wisdom , know ↑ o ↑ chance of Alzheimer’s older= true , but prob practicing lawyer doesn’t have it o Reveals stereotypes and reveals something interesting about society o If he said similar about something else about black or white o Its funnier to laugh at older ppl but u can’t say the race thing Ageism • Ageism: Stereotypes, prejudice, & discrimination based on age o It can be young old , but typ we say old • Group were ↑ okay with expressing our stereotypes about o There are other groups also , like overweight , obese ppl were also ↑ okay with expressing stereotypes with them • here’s evidence that were okay with showing our stereotypes o Older man on motor cycle looking at younger in convertible o Says old men should stick to hitting on old women Facets of Ageism • Although largely applied to older adults, can also apply to the young—juvenile ageism o Teenagers = victim of ageism o Cuz at some way in that age they’re phys mature they’re mostly mentally mature  yet there’s rules that are discriminatory o Cant drink , cant drive Rules apply to them vs other ppl o Some make sense = good that 10 y old doesn’t drive o U can vote b4 u can drink = odd he thinks , drinking age= 19 here and 21 in usa • Importance of studying elderly: Elderly pop will double by 2030 o Y is it important other than that we shud care about equality o Pop shud double 2030 = cuz ppl living longer , and a lot of baby bummers = this massive group of ppl o Need huge ∆s to accommodate large group of baby bummers o Attitudes ∆s must occur cuz attitudes we have affect the elderly • Unlike other prejudices, elderly are out-group that will 1 day (hopefully!) become in-group o What was formerly ur outgroup – becomes ur ingroup o We will all eventually become old o Everyone has ideas that may affect u when u become that age o This happens for sex ∆ = but that’s rare What form does ageism take? • Patronizing language: Overaccomodation, Baby talk o patronizing language- talking loud when their beside u o Eg wife’s grandfather = super wrinkly o Looks really old o Hi how are u zeta sam = he’s like y are u yelling im ≠ a kid o Gentle jolly ppl = that’s how we think but this guy fit the grumpy old man • Patronizing behavior: Infantalization o Condescending treatment o Assumption of physical and mental deterioration • Some may be positive o We were all taught to help old ppl cross street o Eg boy scouts get bage for it o Put urself into old persons shoes o U look older =but ur fit , u go to gym ,intact mind and memory , great lawyer o Some 10 year old grabs hand to help u and ur like what r u doing o By doing this nice beahv ur infantizing them , making them feel older and ↓ capable then they’re o Can have long effects • speaking and behaving diff with them = makes them think they’re ≠ equal and ≠ capable of things • Perdue & Gurtman, 1990 • Ageism: o Do ppl have negative associations with elderly? o If so, are these associations implicit/automatic? o Prob explicitly they do have negative but also positive  But what do they do imlciity • Method: o Evaluative priming task o Prime = “Old” vs. “Young” subliminally (55 ms) o Positive vs. Negative traits presented after prime o Asked to categorize words as positive or negative o DV: RT to words (faster RT = stronger association) • Evaluative Priming Task o Ppl see the world old o Then see world selfish o Then see rxn time as good or bad word o Idea here is o When young do it = when they hear old and self = easy to say as bad o When see young and selfish = harder to categorize as bad , takes longer , cuz associate young with good and selfish with bad • Graph o Reaction time to positive and negative trait as function of priming word o Old or young o See that with old = no diff in how long ppl take to categorize negative vs positive traits o Young = negative traits take longer to categorize then when primed with old o Young = positive traits faster to be categorized as such o Theirs ≠ evidence of outgroup degrogration – like associating old with bad things o Its ↑ ingroup favoritism = young ppl do this , like their ingroup o Don’t dislike old just like young • Results: o Negative words are ↑ associated with old than with young o Positive words are ↓ associated with old than with young • BUT: o Is this out-group bias?-in combo it is = extent to which I like my group may mean I dislike other group ↑  Its ↑ about ingroup love instead of out-group degrgation o What does this have to do with ppl?  Old could mean a lot of things – ≠ good social description , ≠ generalizable to the elderly – like its ≠ clear  Young is generally the same thing • iclicker – which of the following are probs with Gurtman et all study on implicit attitude towards the elderly o A= The authors didn’t measure explicit attitudes o B- The results showed ingroup bias o C= Results may ≠ generalize to social evaluations o D= The authors measured implicit attitudes o E= The authors didn’t thank god in their acknowledgement Origins of Ageism • Societal age grading o Descriptive analysis o We have grades in elementary and ↑ school o I wud never dream of playing with other from diff grade = im in 4 but they in 3 never o now hes doesn’t care = main categorization is their adults o teaches u age diff matter = at young age o Eg young ppl pay ↓ for bus , movie , bus and older pay ↓ = young don’t have as much money , seniors don’t have money  makes sense o But makes age salient = that some are older and other younger • Dominance of youth culture o Businesses especially interested in capturing demographic o 18-30 year old o Starting to make money but dont have kids = they have lots of disposable income o Means a lot of adds geared toward this demographic o Actors in commercials ect o Sends msg = these are the ideal model ppl o Flipside = if ur older ur ≠ as good • Media=acceptable to make fun of old ppl o After few days on the trail , youll begin to admire her beauty  Its making fun of someone older = cant become beautiful , once ur in her shoes ull like her , but ≠ attractive o Seen under normal lights , seen under light quest lights  These women are diff in attractiveness , this is older and this is younger  They cud have picked same age but 1 ↓ attractive but they didn’t o Older women drinking trea  Seen enough old bags try a new face  Add for handbags  Expression old ppl= calling them old bags o Its common to see it making fun of old ppl • Fear of Death o We may have negative feeling toward elderly cuz remind us we will get old 1 day o Old is closer to death then young ppl o We don’t like old cuz remind us of death o Alli g = doesn’t think its an eventuality like others don’t either • Terror Management o We will all die!-->No 1 wants to think about this eventuality o terror management theory =we don’t wanna think about the fact that were all gonna die  Try to suppress it  We have defense mechanisms to ≠ think of eventuality of death  Cuz it causes anxiety and fear and we wundt able to funct o Eg Ali GHes with smart person that’s old  That oh death will come eventually  funny= cuz we all know were gonna die and so does ali g But hes making fun of this person o Although we all know were gonna die • Martens et al., 2004 • Given instinct for self-preservation, ppl want to deny death or reminders of death o Ppl find elderly threatening cuz they’re reminders of own death o Elderly out-group bias (ageism) is product of this mortality salience • study= they had implicit way of assessing extent to which ppl o Presented ppl with pics of young and old ppl o then everyone = did word completions = can be completed in death related ways :Death , skull , grave o Word related to death or word ≠ related to death o Ppl primed = with pic of elderly roe likely to make death word completion o Again idea = old person may remind of us death and so that may be way we wanna avoid them and distance ourselves form them Ageist self-stereotypes • What happens to us when we take these stereotypes about ourselves o Eg old person doesn’t have good memory , we lose our memory when we get old o Yes cog decline but ≠ as steep as we think o And cog declines tend to be limited to certain domains o Some ppl decline a lot = like if they have disease o But most do ≠ o Can ideas we have of ppl getting old , when we get old will we lose our memory cuz we believed that when we were younger o Rebecca levi did research on this • Self-stereotype: Internalization of societal beliefs about the traits associated with one’s group o Old person , belief that old person become frail phys and mentally o It happens at really end of life , doesn’t happen right away and it varies o Yes old person have poor memories and phys unfit and therefor im a poor person so I have this • Development of ageist self-stereotypes o Ubiquity of elderly stereotypes (even among children)  All over the place , don’t have to look far to find it o Elderly stereotypes can operate below awareness  Evidence from b4 study o When young become old, and identify with elderly in-group, the stereotype that was held for a lifetime becomes self-stereotype  When they identify with being old , they might internalize believes nad belive it themselves Effects of ageistself-stereotypes (Levy, 2003; Levy, 2009- at yale) • Longitudinal studies show that ppl (18-49 years) with positive self-perceptions-of- aging o Looked at ppl age 18-49 – and measured their beliefs of elderly , belifs of what its like when someones old o Positive attidue about agging or negative attidue o What do u think wud happen when they get old o This belift = attiduee = makes massive diff o Power of self fufuling prophecy = if I bleieve somethnign I will look at ambigious evidnece and look at it in that lense of the belief  im young= I think old ppl lose their memory when they’re getting older 60y  have this attidue = now when ur that age – u get frsutration like convo and u forget something say I forgeitn cuz im gettiing older = having senior moment  I forget things now = but I don’t attribute it to im old , but when u r actirually old u look at the ambigious sitimuli and then say its cuz ur old  And cuz u say it over and over = that ur having ↓ memory = it can lead to self fufiliment o Positive self steretpes = positive atidues of aging = Reported better health up to 20-40 years later  Fewer heart attacks, strokes, angina, etc.  We dunno how it occurs , like self fufilling propecy , excersize ect ect o Postive views = Lived 7.5 years longer  Low cholesterol and exercise improve lifespan by 4 years that’s great that’s half as much of having positve view of what it means to get old o Huge impact when outgorup becomes ingorup – cultuviate respect and positive attidue for elderly cuz ur gonna be old 1 day o Age is a # • Implications o Mental & physical deteriora
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