Nelson Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Winter

Description
Week1Jan9th2014IntroductionDefinitionsConceptsNelson20140209CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF STEREOTYPING PREJUDICEhttpwwwyoutubecomwatchv1GlticqrECUGroups are the basic building blocks of society because people have found that their lives would be longer and more fulfilling if they fend for themselves or only for their own group There are a lot of benefits to groups including fighting off predators raising offspring successfully etc There are also some cons including mate competition and retention keeping your mate regardless of their negative aspects Group members tend to favour their own groups ingroups over other groups to which they do not belong outgroups Assigning people to different groups is an example of minimal group The preference for ingroup members causes negative feelings about other groups prejudice and believe that certain characteristics are associated with other groups forming stereotypes because they are perceived to be antithetical or to the ingroups welfare or values It also underlies more severe negative behaviour toward other groups If ingroup preferences and hostility toward outgroups are adaptive and innate there is little we can do to avoid prejudice and stereotyping There is no rational basis for disliking others simply because they belong to another groupWe see some form of prejudice stereotyping and discrimination For example the Spanish Inquisition where the intergroup prejudice and hostility led to bloodshed Overt expression of racial prejudice and intergroup hatred have declined dramatically racial prejudice and stereotypes have by no means disappeared DEFINING STEROTYPING Lippmanns Stereotype The word defined the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms that is as having similar attributes based on a common feature shared by eachStereotypes tell us what social information is important to perceive and to disregard in our environmentWe pay attention to stereotype consistent information and disregard inconsistent information that doesnt conform stereotypes Stereotyping From Bad to NeutralResearchers began to regard stereotyping as a very negative lazy way to perceiving social groups It is an outward indicator of irrational nonanalytic cognition Allports The Nature of Prejudice said that stereotypes are an exaggerated belief associated with a categoryThough Lippmann did not express any particular evaluation of the nature of stereotypes researchers soon began to regard stereotyping as a very negative lazy way of perceiving social groupsThe SocialCognitive DefinitionIn the 1940s scientists regarded stereotyping as a rather automatic process of categorization that many cognitive and social psychologists believe is inherent in the very nature of the way humans think about the world Brigham defined stereotyping as a generalization made by a group concerning a trait attribution which is unjustified by an observer The italicized part of the definition needs to be corrected They can be justified or unjustified Hamilton and Trolier defined stereotype as a cognitive structure that contains the perceivers knowledge beliefs and expectations about a human group The italicized makes it too broad and inconsistent with past definitions It sounds like the definition of a schema A schema is a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus including attributes and the relations about those attributes Schemas are broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of a stimulus our expectations for the motives or behaviour of the stimulus and our feeling toward that stimulus Stereotypes are more specific and included within a schema Ashmore and Del Boca defined stereotypes as a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people Cultural and Identity Stereotypes A cultural stereotype describes shared or communitywide patterns of belief Ashmore and Del Boca suggest that adjective rating scales tend to assess cultural stereotypesAn individual stereotype describes the beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group Because ones cultural stereotype about a group may not be the same as ones individual stereotype about the group Assessing a persons knowledge about the stereotypes of the group in their culture yields no information on whether the individual personally believes the stereotype or whether there are other ideas about the group that may tend to drive ones attitude toward the group People tend to be more interested in individual stereotypes because many experiments have demonstrated that these are most directly related to the persons specific thoughts feelings and behaviour toward the group Is a Stereotype an Attitude An attitude is a general evaluation of some object Attitudes are comprised of three components an affective behavioural cognitive component Thus some theorists define stereotypes as intergroup attitudesResearchers think that the other two components of an intergroup attitude affect and behaviour correspond to prejudice and discrimination Discrimination is defined as any negative behaviour directed toward an individual based on their membership in a group Positive versus Negative Stereotypes Stereotypes are mere generalizations about a group Positive stereotypes are simply beliefs that attribute desirable or positive characteristics in a group DEFINING PREJUDICE
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