PSYC12- CH 2 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 2: Origin and maintenance of Stereotypes and Prejudice The Formation of Stereotypes categorization o the human brain seems to automatically classify or categorize similar objects in the environment o Stereotypes were no longer regarded as the product of lazy thinking by the uneducated or those with moral deficiencies o Stereotypes is now a natural consequence of cognition Why we categorize o the reason is that humans have a limited capacity cognitive system that cannot simultaneously process all the available information in our social environment o we have a need to understand and anticipate the behaviour of others, humans have developed ways around our limited cognitive system by categorization o categorize on the basis of shared features or even shared time and space o we assume that things that are similar on the basis of one feature or because they occur together will likely have other notable similarities on a number of dimension (Aristotles principle) Types of Categorization o Usually Race, Gender, and age (Basic Categorizes Primitive categories) Because they are obvious and immediate feature of an individual, and because these categories yield much information about useful distinction in social behaviour between those in different groups Strong influences on how the perceiver interprets most of the other information about the perceived individual * upon perceiving category words, we automatically think of associated stereotypes for that category, yet when seeing a member of one of these groups, we do not automatically think of all the stereotypes for the groups to which the person belongs to o the way the person categorizes a picture of an individual depends on the perceivers motives, cognitions, and affect. In groups and Out groups o how does the dynamics of groups and how the attitudes, motivation, and cognition of individuals change as a function of their membership in a group o In groups: group in which we belong (we are all different as snowflakes) can be numerous o Out groups: group in which we dont belong (are all alike)
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