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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 - Bodenhausen & Macrae, 1996 Role of cognitive miser = engaging only in the amount of thought necessary to produce an apparently adequate understanding of others Stereotypes = automatic, occur without awareness Cognitive processesare said to be automatic when they occur without the perceivers conscious intent or awareness of them, without the perceivers ability to control them, or with an efficiency that requires little investment of the perceivers limited cognitive resources Personal prejudices (e.g., racial prejudice) may make certain bases for social categorization chronically salient, so when members of these targeted categories are encountered, they tend to be categorized routinely in terms of this particular group membership rather than other equally applicable categories once stereotypic expectations are formed, they tend to bias subsequent information processing in a confirmatory manner when people are committed to egalitarian, nonprejudiced standards and their thoughts, feelings, or behavior seem to violate these standards, they tend to become self-focused and direct effort at reducing this discrepancy low-prejudice persons feel bad when their reactions to out-group members contravene their own nonprejudiced standards, so they are motivated to avoid reacting in stereotypic or prejudiced ways In order to self regulate in making stereotypes, a possible strategy is simply to make direct adjustments to ones judgments and conclusions in the direction opposite to the presumed bias Wegner model of stereotype suppression = starts with the realization that for any control process to be effective, it must be able both to test the status of the environment and to operate on the environment when the test process yields less than satisfactory results Monitoring process = automatic, operating process = effortful, therefore For example, Wegner (1994) reviews evidence from studies of (1) attempts to concentrate, (2) attempts to control ones mood, (3) attempts to relax, (4) attempts to control pain, (5) attempts to fall asleep, and many others Time pressure, distraction and preoccupation, affective states, and even alcohol are factors that may impair thought control by reducing the availability of attentional resources needed to inhibit unwanted thoughts As long as the operating process is in place and functioning, mental control can often be successfully accomplished, but if the effortful operating process is impeded, suspended, or abandoned, the unchecked monitoring process can produce hyperaccessibility of unwanted mental contents, setting the stage for counterintentional reactions Social perceivers can successfully inhibit stereotypic responses while they are actively striving to do so, but once they stop making this effort, the stereotypes return to affect their thoughts and actions to an even greater degree While the operating process is working, it can keep the unwanted thoughts successfully out of awareness, but if it is interrupted by a cognitive load, or if it simply recedes or becomes inactive because of diminishing motivation to engage in suppression, then rebound effects can begin to emerge telling people that they must justify their judgments of an out-group member may instill a concern about being labeled prejudiced that results in conscious attempts to avoid stereotypes rather than conscious attempts to be as systematic and thorough as possible. Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: THE IAT TEST IAT measures 2 target concepts that appear in a 2 choice task and the attribute in a 2 task **know what the proceduredesign of the IAT is Implicit attitudes are manifest as actions or judgments that are under the control of automatically activated evaluation, without the performers awareness of that causation Seeks to measure implicit attitudes by measuring their underlying automatic evaluation IAT may reveal attitudes and other automatic associations even for people who prefer not to express those attitudes IAT assessesthe association between a target-concept discrimination and an attribute dimension The procedure starts with the introduction of the target-concept discrimination. (eg. First names that is recognizable as being attributed to BlackWhite) Respond one category to be responded by left handother by right hand Then introduce attribute dimension form of a 2 category discrimination as well (eg.pleasantunpleasant)
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