Cross-Cultural Psyc: effort to recognize unity within diversity
Etics: consistent across culture - Universal
Emics: differs between culture – Culturally Specific
Culture: a set of social adaptations that fulfill shared human needs (shelter,
food etc.) each culture must figure out how to fulfill them in a way that
accommodates environment and social realities (agriculture, urban etc.)
-Culture has basic needs and cultural response – avoid illness/better hygeine
-Culture is a set of solutions depends on ecological factors (climate) and
social factors (affluence, density, technology, gov’t etc.)
Dimentions on which culture differ (Hofstede)1.individualistm vs
collectivism 2. power distance: culture encourage r discourage weak
members; equal or imbalance 3. uncertainty avoidance: low tolerance for
unambiguity or okay with gray area 4.masculinity vs femininity:
cognition/analytical vs emotion/sensitivity 5.long vs. short term orientation:
delay gratification or act now
Phases of Cross-Cultural Research
Phase 1: Cross cultural comparisons – research that compares groups on
a psychological variable that are similar or different for various groups
(parenting style, gender diff., risk taking, universal?) Are 2 groups different?
Phase 2: Ecological-level studies – research that focus on countries and
cultures to derive generalizations – 5 dimensions – indiv./coll., power
dist.,uncertainty avoid., masc./fem., and long/short term orientation. Mean
Phase 3: Cultural Studies –indepth descriptions of cultural practices
underlying cultural diff. Goes beyond mean diff. b/c it compares variables
that are related across culture. Study individuals to find correlation in culture
and across culture.
Phase 4: Linkage studies – quantifying an aspect of culture that produce
diff. and determing how it LINKS to a variable of interest. Experiments and
unpackaging studies (how + why there are cultural diff. layer by layer until
diff. are explained -Onion peeling). Use context variable in order to
unpackage culture; measure in indiv. Level and measure whether they are
linked/correlated or not.
Issues: 1.Equivalence: To render the results meaningful, the variable of
interest needs to carry equal meaning for the cultures involved. Methods
include: Linguistic: back translation, committee approach. Measurement:
validation studies. Sampling: experimental controls. Procedural: experimenter
controls. Theoretical: experimenter control
2.Response Bias: Socially desirable responding, Acquiescence bias,
Extreme response bias and Reference group effect. Individualistic cultures
less likely to agree and high masculine and high power distance more likely
to select extreme response bias.
Socialization – process of ensuring that standards of behaviours, beliefs,
attitudes conform to the society one lives in. (process)
Enculturation – standards of behaviours, beliefs, and attitudes that an
individual learns and internalizes. (outcome)
Developmental Niche Model: Setting, Child-rearing practice and
Psychology of caretakers Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System: Child goes through family, peers,
school, neighbours to mass media, extended fam, health services etc. to
lifestyle, beliefs/customs, gov’t, material resources etc.
After Age 15 – more difficult to identify with new culture
Parenting Style: Authoritarian – high on control/low on warmth.
Authoritative – high on warmth/control. Uninvolved – Low on
control/warmth. Permissive – low on control/high on warmth.
-Japanese mothers appealed to feelings and consequences. American
mothers appealed authority.
-Kipsigis (Western Kenya) parents engage in a sitting ritual with their babies.
East Asian parents less likely to place infants on the floor for free play. N