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PSYC14H3 (46)
Sisi Tran (22)
Midterm

Midterm #1 Textbook Definitions/Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran

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CHAPTER 1CULTUREHUMAN NATUREpeople from different cultures also differ in their psychology psychological processes are shaped by experiencespsychological processes are constrainedfacilitated by the neurological structures that underlie themCulture 1 information that is acquired from other members of ones species through social learning that is capable of affecting an individuals behaviours 2 people who are existing within some kind of shared context same ideas language experiencesonly if we consider culture to be a unique kind of symbolic coding then humans can be seen as the only species that have culturehumans are not the only species that engage in social learning elephants who were hunted in 100 years ago have learned to behave aggressively towards humans todaycultural learning by animals is significantly slower and less effective compared to that of humanshumans tend to look for people with prestige and who are respected by others when deciding who to imitatehuman cultural learning skills rest on 2 capacities 1 ability to consider the perspective of others 2 the ability to communicate with languageTheory of Mind refers to the notion that people understand that others have minds of their own and thus have different perspectivesintentionsImitative Learning the learner internalizes something about the models goalsstrategies he uses a stick to get the bananas because he wants themEmulative Learning learning by focusing on only the environmental effects the stick has bananaknocking qualitiesafter watching a model chimpanzees used the rake teethdown even though the model used it teethup while the 2year olds imitated exactly what the model didlanguage is an extremely important part of cultural learning because it can be used to convey information that cannot always be easily shown visuallyRatchet Effect the process whereby cultural information can continue to accumulate without losing earlier information this is where humans stand out from the restcultural ideas not only physical tools like democracy also represents accumulation of culture spread out over human historyCultural Worlds we exist within worlds that consist of valuable cultural information that has accumulated over historyEncephalization Quotient ratio of the brain weight of an animal to that predicted for a comparable animal of the same sizetheories about how primates acquired large brains involve the idea that they needed them for mapping out locations rich in fruit to develop extracting skills and to maintain power hierarchiesSocial Brain Hypothesis the idea that great cognitive demands which exist in social living have led to the evolution of large brainsNeocortex Ratio volume ratio of the outermost layer of the brain to the rest of the brain used as a measure of intelligenceMagic Number 150 according to the neocortex ratio graph humans should have an average group size of 150 which is evident todays subsistence societies the amount of living descendants after 4 generations and seems to work best in everyday functioninggeneral psychology has taught people to think of the mind as a CPU where contextcontent are unwanted noise leaving no room for cultural differencesSambian males pass through homosexual bisexual and heterosexual stages in their lives while Westerners believe each is a way of life one must commit tocultural psychology has constantly fought the battle on whether psychological processes are the same everywhere universal or whether they emerge differently across cultures variableAccessibility Universal a cognitive tool that exists in all cultures is used to solve the same problem and is accessible to the same degree across cultures social facilitation
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