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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 2 - evolution of emotions Elements of an evolutionary approach to emotions expression - Darwin - involuntary changes of face, voice, and posture that are observable signs of an emotion evolution - species developed by small modifications according to three principles o superabundance - production of more offspring than are needed merely to maintain numbers of a population o variation - random production among offspring of variations that can be inherited o natural selection - selection of certain traits because some variations enable individuals to survive and reproduce better than others selection pressures - features of the physical and social environment in which humans evolved, that determined whether or not individuals survived and reproduced; threats or opportunities directly related to physical survival o intrasexual competition - occurs within a sex for access to mates; intense and continual struggle; most pronounced among males o intersexual competition - process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex; preference women report for males of higher status o evolutionary theorists - capacity to cooperate is powerful determinant of who reproduces and who survives; more likely to succeed at endeavours when behaving in cooperative fashion, mindful of others needs adaptation - modification of characteristics of a biological organism to fit an environmental niche o preference for sweet tastes helps identify foods of nutritional value; plants contain toxic compounds that deter predators - bitter-tasting and pungent-smelling o humans have evolved preferences for potential mates who show signs of fertility and reproductive readiness; facial symmetry guides toward potential mates who have been raised in healthy environments o survival of offspring in infancy; increases chances that genes will be passed from one generation to the next o many human traits serve no apparent evolutionary function and are thought of as by-products; not all human traits emerged to meet survival and reproduction related problems and opportunities (de novo) o exaptation - trait that acquires new function o Andrew - facial expression in primates were developed from reflexes; flatten their ears when startled to protect the ears (raising eyebrows in humans) www.notesolution.com
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