PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion
Chapter 8: Development of Emotions in Childhood
3 main areas in which children experience emotional development: emotional expression, emotion
recognition, and emotional regulation.
Theories of Emotional Development
Differential emotions theory (Carrol Izaard): basic/discrete emotions (joy, anger, sadness, disgust, fear)
are “natural kinds”, innate, and mature on a developmental schedule.
All basic emotions have neural, expressive and feeling components that occur automatically and
unconsciously in response to specific events.
Emotional response pattern are stereotypical but modifiable via info processing mechs
Emotional dev is due to maturation and particular types of interaction that lead to distinct emotions
Differentiation Theory (Katherine Bridges, 1932): infants start with 2 basic emotional states
(negativity/distress and positivity/pleasure) which differentiate later on Possibly bc of changes in
hedonic tone and general arousal.
Infant emotion = state of diffuse excitement. This differentiates into +/- affect, then to basic
Changes are based on biological maturation and interaction w/ environment.
Functionalist: emotions are relational processes in which children establish, alter, and maintain their
relationship w/ the environment
Emotion = intrapersonal feeling + interpersonal consequences
Eg) joy may signal success towards a goal
Facial expressions = communication which differ based on audience, event, and personal relevance
Emotional dev is due to social interaction
Emotional Expression: facial expressions, vocal overtures, and gestures.
Basic Emotions = building blocks for emotions req. for complex social interactions.
1. Disgust = earliest
Seen in newborns in resp to sour taste (sim expression other primates make to sourness)
2. Joy/happiness, 2months
1m: smiles aren’t social bc occur mostly during sleep
2m: social smiles occur; smile elicited from gentle stroking
3m.: smiles occur during infant-caregiver interactions, indicating positive emotion.
Smile for more attention & to engage caregiver. Research sugg. Children’s emotional
display affects their parent’s emotions more than the reverse
3. Anger, 4-6m
Izard, bennet & colleagues (2002):w/ facial expression coding scheme, they studied 4mo &
12mo facial expr. in resp to arm restraint.
More 4mo children showed surprise than anger during arm restraint, revealing they respond
emotionally different to same stimulus
Follow up @ 12mo: equally more Joy and anger than surprise, fear and sadness in arm
Interest and surprise responses decline b/w 4-12mo. Sugg. basic emotions become more
organized and differentiated over 1 year of life, but as specific as older children.
4. Sadness, 4mo
Michael Lewis and colleagues: sad facial expressions were accompanied by increased cortisol
lvls like in adults BUT these sad expressions are also seem in response to disgust elicitors.
So, it’s uncertain if infant-sadness = adult-sadness.
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5. Fear, 7mo in unison w/ motor skill development
Bennet (2002): in resp to fear causing sitch (masked stranger), 4mo kids showed surprise and joy
more than fear
Fear expressions occurred in any situation that didn’t provoke danger
4mo express fear in surprise eliciting situations (jack in the box)
Camras (2007): their cross-cultural study of 11mo American, Chinese, and Japanese saw little
Fear and anger couldn’t be reliably distinguished according to the context in which they
Braungart-Rieker, Hill-Soderlund, and Karass (2010)
4m: fear = weak resp to strangers
4m-12m: fear resp. strengthens and levels off at b/w 12-16m.
More temperamental fear = more fearful reactivity
More sensitive mom = slower fear increase rate in babies over time
6. Surprise = most common reaction to anger and fear eliciting situations which sugg. a lack of
Camras et al (2002): coded surprise facial expressions of 11mo. Found no difference b/w
surprise and baseline events in surprise facial expression.
5-14mo: situations expected to cause surprise were accompanied by freezing behaviour. So, this
may be a characteristic of early surprise reaction.
Social Emotions: 18 Months and Beyond
18m: self-conscious emotions arise - empathy, concern-related altruism, embarrassment, and envy
are recognized by combo of facial, vocal, and bodily expressions
12-18m: kids respond to another’s distress by giving the kind of comfort they themselves usually like
(comforting, bringing a parent, or offering an object)
3y: comfort given is tailored more to the individual’s needs (fetch the child’s mother and respond
with concern to the distress that they have caused)
2-3y: self-conscious evaluative emotions – pride, guild, shame, regret
Pride – you must compare your behaviour with some social standard to evaluate success and
Cognitive development that enable the emergence of emotions
Lavelli and Fogel (2005): changes in visual attn. parallel the emergence of smiling
Studied infant expressions of happiness during mom-child interactions on a weekly basis
from birth to 3mo
1mo infants switched b/w simple atn to their moms face and neutral gazes away from face
2mo: more concentration on mother’s face (head, mouth, eyes) + social smiling
3-4m infants expect caregivers to respond to their overtures. No resp = sadness
Anger, 4-6m: caused by frustration in response to a blocked goal
Requires knowledfe of the goal one is trying to get and understanding one cant successfully
Associated w/ means-ends knowledfe @ 6m
Req. ability to compare a potentially threatening encounter w/ similar event in memory
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Fear reflects an increase in mem capacity and visual discrimination
Appraisal theory: when the even such as seeing Mom is consistent with a goal (wanting mom to be
present), joy will occur.
Mom leaves = sadness; mom might potentially arrive = hope or fear, but not joy.
Dev of Consciousness and mentalizing @ 2y – empathy and embarrassment
Self-reflection and self-other differentiation are 2 cognitive milestones in the emergence of the
Children must understand the subjectivity of other’s experiences (knowing other’s are in a
different emotional state from them) and that they can be the object of another person’s
attention (e.g. embarrassment requires you to understand you are the subject of social
Self- recognition: awareness of the objectivity of one’s own body. Self-directed behaviour occurs
Tested w/ mirror-rouge paradigm.
One can reflect on courses of action in making decisions and generate new solutions
Lewis (1997): self-recog abilities means you can show embarrassment and empathy
Theyre able to understand that they can be the target of others’ emotional displays.
Kids are less likely to imitate another person’s actions when these display elicit neg
At 2-4y, the cognitive development of language causes an increase in talking about emotional states
Emotions that arise are pride, shame, guilt, regret
Use words: happy, sad, mad and scared
Mainly talk about their own emotions, but also attribute these emotions to others
18mo engage in cooperation and altruistic acts.
3-4y: attribute representational states to people, such as beliefs, thoughts and knowledge
Eg) reasoning that “john cheated bc he thought the teacher was not in the room”
Widen & Russel (2010): children being able to understand other’s minds shows they have a
fuller understanding of emotion concepts and different types of emotions
The capacity to attribute beliefs to oneself or others parallels the development of certain social
Eg) Pride, is a feeling of accomplishment; joy= belief that one successfully reached a goal.
5y: children connect others’ beliefs to their emotions
Theory of mind: ability to understand oneself and others in terms of mental states (emotions,
desires, beliefs). This is needed for socio-emotional dev.
Jenkins and Astington (2002): theory of mind was responsible for kids increased capacity to
engange in joint plans.
Developmental Changes in Elicitation and Expression: Changes in the kinds of events that elicit specific
Fear starts at 7 months, peaks at 12m, and declines over time.
4-5y: fear is caused by imaginary monsters, ghosts, etc.
Early school years, fear of physical harm emerges
Exposure to different eliciting situations across time creates a range of new emotional experiences
Emotional expression changes across developmental time.
Larson (2002): ha children record emotions daily. Result: downward shift in positive affect;
increase in negative affect from pre-to kate adolescence
Cross-cultural study on emotional expression, Camras (2003): Compared to Amer. infants:
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CH = less expressive, Ja= expressed more like Am. than Ch.
Specific cultural elements are associated with emotional expression
Eg) cultural differences in expression might be due to diffs in Parenting: Am. mothers encourage
emotional expressions more than Ch
Recognition of Emotions
Emotion expression and recognition must have coevolved since to relate to others, kids must
recognize their own emotions.
Babies prefer human faces over other stim, which is essential to discriminating among people and
learn about others emo states
Grossman (2010): emo recog relies on interaction b/w maturing perceptual syst and the capacity to
discriminate emotional info
Increase in visual acuity = increased facial expression recog & emo recog
Facial Expressions -
Habituation: Child can discriminate diff emotions when they look at newer emotion (using a drawn
face with an emotion) longer vs. familiar emotions (a face w/ diff emotion that researchers
habituated the baby to)
2-3m = discriminate happy, sad, surprised; 4-6m = discr. fear.
Pattern of dev parallels their ability to express that emotion.
Social referencing: guiding one’s own behaviour using emo displays of others
Based on dev of joint attn. which occurs b/w 6m-12m
Visual cliff test: 12mo more likely to cross when mom shows happy emotion (74%); non crossed
when mom = fearful.
Labelling emotion: starts during preschool age. Happy, angry and sad are discriminated first. Then
scared, surprise, disgusted.
Nelson & Russell (2011): 72% by Gr. 2/3 correctly ID joy, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and
a neutral expression.
Vocal Expressions: babies recog parent’s emotional expression via prosodic aspects of speech like
5mo – discriminate happy, sad, and angry voices.
Babies use Vocal expression as social referencing
Mumm et al (1996): 12mo engaged w/ new toy less and showed more distress when mom had
Visual cliff test – more babies crossed when in resp to positive vocal expressions, vocal + facial,
but not facial alone.
Postures and Gestures: children recog emotion via facial expression more than posture, but posture
more than voice.
Nelson and Rusell (2011): P = 2-5yo.; 3 conditions: face exp, posture (face is blurred), and voice
Multimodal Recognition of Emotions: children label emotions after exposure to facial, vocal, and
postural cue combos.
in test above, w/ this method was more advantageous than voice or body only conditions, but not
over face only condition.
Also, they showed 6-7yo ID pride only if facial and postural cues are given.
8yo, ID pride w/ facial cue alone.
Infants’ Brain Mechanisms in the Recognition of Emotions
Facial recognition in the brain:
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Amygdala (is fully developed in infants) + orbitofrontal cort (recog emo) = evidence for early
H evolved to attend to facial cues but exposure to H facial expressions is required to mature
these early neural circuits
Individual exp has an effect on dev of facial recog
Pollack and sinha (2002): maltreated kids are more sensitive to signals of anger and lower
sensitivity to sadness (fig. 8.9)
Emotion recog via voice- voice might convey more emo info than facial cues early in dev.
Amygdala + temporal regions = facial and vocal recog
Grossman (2010): localized activity in Rtemporal of 7mo in resp to happy/angry, but not
Also, Stronger cortical activity if facial cues match vocal expressions
Flom and bahrick (2007): 3mo can ID emotion using audiovisual cues, but only at 5mo can they
ID emo with vocal alone.
The Negativity Bias: bad affects us more strongly than the good, develops early in life till adulthood.
Mumme & Fernald (2003): A child is less likely to play w/ a new toy if mother shows neg emo
BUT, the inverse isn’t true = child is not any more likely to play with a new toy if mother shows
positive expressions towards it.
There’s a developmental shift from positivity bias towards negativity bias from 6m – 1y
This is bc negativity bias develops at 7m.
So, 6-7mo are more sensitive to happy emo than fearful. But by 7mo, more attn. moves towards fearful
and angry faces from happy faces.
“My Oedipus Complex”
A short story about a boy whose father suddenly returns from war and becomes this wedge
between the boy and his mothers’ relationship.
Regulation of Emotions
Emotion regulation: whole set of auto/voluntary processes that modulates the onset, intensity, and
duration of emotional exp, physiology, and expression.
Regulatory Processes – interpersonal factors of emotional regulation
1. Change/alter the Situation. Eg) changing situation: parents reg emotion by selecting play
environments, creating predictable schedules, offering emotional support at home; alter situation:
avoid tantrum by helping a child retrieve a toy.
2. Excecutive function: processes that plan in relation to long-term goals and other people, negotiate
the unexpected, and deal w/ dangers and immediate emotions.
Eg) An upset infant regulates their social and emotional exp by shifing attn. away from upsetting
3. Cognitive change: altering the way an emotional charges situation is praised.
Eg) “jimmy pushed me” vs “jimmy bumped into me bc the hallway was crowded” req.
understanding one situation can be seen in 2 ways and beliefs.
4. Behavioural and physiological change: involves changing emotions once they have started
NeurobiologicalDevelopment of Emotion (Ref. Fig. 8.10)
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) and ANS become less sensitive to stress. This
change lets Child and parent initiated regulatory processes can operate effectively.
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higher baseline vagal tone = effective emo regulation.
Cortical control over arousal develops
2-4m: inhibitory centres in forebrain develops improved attn.control, neonatal reflexes,
conventional sleep patterns.
9-10m: As frontal lobes dev, resp inhibition improves reg overt expression and tolerate
2yr: lang. devs, and emo is regulated by talking about feelings with others & self-calming
3-5yr: effortful control (ability to ref attn.. and b auto and voluntarily)
Temperament: One set of chars = child’s temperament, which is an innate part of personality. Eg)
generally shy, neg, cheerful etc. across situations.
Important to study bc its seen in early dev and is relatively stable and predictive of later outcomes.
Conceptual models of temperament:
1. Thomas and Chess
Difficult temperament: neg emotions, low adaptability, high activity, low emo reg.
2. Asendorpf, borkenau, ostendorf, & van Aken (2001)
Resilient: good self-reg, and low neg affect
Undercontrolled: impulsive, restless, neg emo
Overcontrolled: fearful, socially quiet
3. Bus and Plomin (1975) (ref T.8.3)
(temperament dimension): (aspectof emo onto which each dimension maps)
Emotionality: fear, anger, distress
Activity: general arousal of motor system
Sociability: interest and posiive emo towards others
Impulsivity: time taken to express emo or activity
4. Rothbart (1991)
(temperament dimension): (aspectof emo onto which each dimension maps)
Activity: general arousal of motor syst
Smiling and laughter: happiness or pleasure
Distress to limitations: anger
Soothability: recovery time from neg emo when soothed
Persistence: duration of interest.
Genetic Contributions to Emotional Development
If monozygotic twins are more sim than dizygotic twins = genetic influence
Behaviour genetic studies: Give overall pic of heritability of traits by studyng combination of genes all
contribute to specific behaviours
Mono twins are more sim on emotionality, activity, sociability, impulsivity, attn.control, and effortful
Molecular genetics: study specific genes that may exert a certain behaviour
Most studied for emotional dev is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene. 5-HTTLPR: serotonin-
s/s (in both chromosomes) or s/l (one chromosome + long allele) version more amygdala activity
to fear or threat than l/l
5-HTTLPR s/s = more attentive to positive emo than sad, threatening, or neutral stim
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5-HTTLPR + COMT ( catechol-o-methyltransferase) in 7mo: responsiveness for facial expressions of
5-HTTLPR operates w/ environment carriers of short allele 5-HTTLPR have more depressive
symptoms after maltreatment
Chapter 9: Emotions in Social Relationships
Interaction b/w emotions and social relationships - 2 ways of thinking
1. Emotions structure social relationships. Social emotions are scripts for distinct kinds of relationships.
2. Emotional responses are shaped by social relationships. They vary according to our situation (w/
friends, do we have power, social class)
Emotions within Intimate Relationships intimate relationships shaped by goals. Desire + love =
John Bowlby: emotions are central to intimate relationships throughout the lifespan.romantic love +
social motivations of attatchment (trust + protection) + affiliation (cooperation)
Principles of sexual love Romantic relationship = Sex desires + romantic love (feelings of deep
We feel romantive love for ONE other person = enduring relationship
Study on speedating (Eli Finkel): men + women interact for 2mins then rate sexual desire and
chemistry for other P.
Unique desire + chemistry are reciprocated by target person
Those who felt sexual attr. were rated least on desire or chemistry
Sexual desires are responsive to specific cues (beauty, strength etc)
Passion is shown by touch, cuddling and sexual signalling
In women, sexual desires peak during ovulation
More time spent together in romantic relationships = sexual desire become romantic love.
Sexual desire differs from romantic love
In a study, participants excluded desire (59%), infatuation (82%) and lust (87%) from the
category Love. Caring (8%), affection (27%).
Emotions in marriage
Toxic emotional behaviours (Johm Gottman & Robert Levenson): 4 horsemen of the apocalypse;
most damaging and divorce leading behaviours.
Criticism: high criticism = low marriage satisfaction
Defensiveness and stonewalling: resist or are defensive when dealing with problems:
Contempt: expressed in sneers and eye-rolls
93% of couples in their longitudinal study divorced w/in 14years when they expressed toxic
Capitalizing upon the good (shelly gable): share what is good in life w/ partner = commitment and
Express appreciation and encouragement in partner vs stonewalling or criticizing.
Play: amusement, mirth and play = happy intimate life (especially during child rearing part in
Compassionate love: a positive regard for partner and appreciation of their faults and weaknesses.
Compassionate lovers are less likely to divorce after 4 years
Forgiveness: shift in ideas of reveng and voidance toward a positive understanding of the humanity
of your partner.
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Recognition that humans make errors. Leads to increased commitment and feelings of
Emotions in Friendships affiliation + gratitude +mimicry + social support = healthy friendship
Based on human social goal of affiliation: cooperation towards a common goal.
Gratitude: a moral emotion which tracks cooperative lvls of non-kins, motivates altruistic and
affectionate b, and positively reinforces acts of affectionate and cooperative b.
Mimicry: emotional mimicry builds friendships and increase closeness.
We feel closer to those who share attitudes, preferences and our beliefs.
Social support: strong feelings of being surrounded by good friends during difficulties.
Buffers people from emo breakdowns, reduces stress, anxiety, and uncertainty.
High social support = lower baseline lvls of cortisol which calms hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA)
Emotions in Hierarchical Relationships: about goals of power and assertion. Emotional displays
negotiate rank positions, Position of power and social class influence emotions and our empathy.
Emotional displays Negotiates Social Rank
Anger = high power emotion, leads to power gain w/in groups, and usually occurs b/w people who
know and like each other when they feel wronged (diminished status or selfhood) causing a
readjustment in the relationship.
Pride = HP emotion signalled in dominant behaviours
Embarassment = low power emotion, low status and physically smaller, signals submission.
Emotional displays signal and occupy different positions of power w/in hierarchies
High emotional exchanges allow group members to negotiate status differences
Eg) teasing uses emotion to negotiate social status
In a study, HP & LP frat members teased each other. HP displayed smiles, anger, contempt –
HP emotions. LP members showed submissive emotions. (T9.2)
Power and Emotion
HP yields greater positive emotions in different situations than LP people.
experience neg emotions like sadness, shame, guild, and anxiety bc attuned to potential threats
in social env.
More likely to mimic their friends emotions
Social Class and Emotion
Lower class position
yields more frequent and more intense threats, anxiety, and stress-related physiology
better judges of negative emotions in others
Lower-class mimic upper-class’ emotions more than vice versa in a study
Respond w/ greater compassion in self report and autonomic physiology (HR deceleration) to
the suffering of others
Emotions within and Between Groups: emotional resp bind us to groups
Groups allow for attachment, based on affiliative motivation of cooperation, organized in hierarchy
Novels and films: Harry Potter and the Philosoher’s Stone
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When Harry looked into the mirror of Erised he saw his parents bc of his attachment desire for his
Gabriel and Young: readers tend to identify with protagonists in books which puts them in a good
mood and causes them to rate high on life-satisfaction
Anger and Intergroup Conflict
Potential for intergroup violence in humans is part of our primate heritage
Anger and rage produce violent b and derive from antisocial motivations
Leonard Berkowitz’s studied the determinants of violence concludes Anger sparks violence
Social conditions that increase the likelihood of intergroup aggression (insults, humiliations,
inequality) increases violence when these conditions cause anger.
Outgroup anger is more likely when ingroup members feel their group is stronger and when they
identify strongly with their own group.
Disgust and Us-Them thinking
Feelings of disgusts peak during intergroup violence, and set the stage for laws that limit intergroup
contact (e.g. anti-semitic laws of the Nazis)
Paul Rozin and colleagues: disgust protects the body from disease and contamination that might
harm our soul or social order
Disgust yields outgroup prejudices.
Infrahumanization: the tendency for ingroup members to attribute animal-like qualities to out-group
members, dehumanizing them.
We privilege ingroup and associate better life outcomes as more likely with ingroup than outgroup.
Emotional Processes that Improve Group Relations: Joint projects and forgiveness
4 skills of emotional intelligences Emotional Inteligence
1. Accurately perceive others emotins via facial expressions, vocalizations, posture and gestures.
2. Understand one’s own emotions
3. Use current feelins in decision making
4. Manage one’s emotions according to situation (emotion regulation)
Emotional intel benefits intimate bonds, friendships, hierarchical relations and relations w/ out-
Chapter 10: Emotions and Cognition
Eadweard Mybridge: photographer with damage to his orbitofrontal cortex + killed out of jealousy
Effects on emotions and social lives; lack of information for an array of social emotions
lack of judgement/not rational; do not abide by morals, norms, and conventions
In order to function in society, our emotions need to be working in relation to each other to guide
our reasoning and actions wisely; emotions influence our reasoning
Passion and reason
orbitofrontal cortex processes social emotions. Dmg = lack of social judgement.
Emotions need to occur in relation to each other to wisely guide our reasoning and action
Magical transformation (Jean-Paul Sarte): emotions influence reasoning by changing how we see
Epicureans and Stoics (3rd century BCE): good life = emotions extirpated (erased) altogether
Emotions = lower, less sophisticated, more primitive ways of perceiving the world
Rational thought > primitive emotions
David Hume (18th century): "reason is and ought to be a slave of passion"
Emotions can be rational:
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1. Emotions are based on substantive beliefs (beliefs and appraisals supporting our emotions
correspond to actual events in the world)
emotions are often the product of rather complex beliefs about real events in the world
2. Emotions help individuals function effectively in the social world
3. Emotion guides cognitive processes: perception, attention, access to certain memories, and bias
the individual respond to the environment in ways that we recognize as valuable
aspects of our humanity
Emotions prioritize thoughts, goals, and actions
notion that emotions guide cognitive processes of rational, adaptive fashion emerged within a
movement known as Cognitive Science (matured in the 1960's)
Simon (1967): emotions would be necessary in any intelligent being
they set priorities among the many different goals that impinge upon individuals at any
moment in time
Emotions signal conflict and redirect the individual’s actions (Aristotle & Freud)
Emotions guide action in a world that is always imperfectly known, and can never be fully
They offer bridges toward rationality to make up for our incompetency of knowing a fully
Better than simply acting randomly or becoming lost in thought trying to calculate the best
Oatley & Johnson-Laird: emotions involve two different kinds of signalling in the nervous system
1. A signal that occurs automatically/unconsciously (primary appraisal)
Organizational” because it (rather simply) sets the brain into a particular mode of
organization, or readiness, that is specific to the particular basic emotion
Emotional priming to a phenomena
2. A signal that derives from the secondary appraisal
“Informational” because the information it carries enables us to make mental models of
events and their possible causes and implications
Normally, Organizational and Informational signals occur together to produce an emotional
feeling with a consciously known cause and object
Helps responses to emergent opportunities and challenges in the environment
Can be dissociated (e.g. split brain patients, antidepressants)
3 perspectives on emotions in cognitive functioning: emotions exert effects on cognition because of
congruency, they can be informative, and the lead to different reasoning styles.
Gordan Bower (influential memory researcher): moods and emotions are associative networks in
In memory, there are pathways devoted to emotions associative links to past experiences,
images, related concepts, labels (semantic network)
We should be better able to learn material that is congruent without current emotion (emotion
congruence) because they are more extensively integrated into ACTIVE memory structures
More easily retrieved at the time of recall
E.g. Participants who read a story in a happy mood will remember more positive facts
sometimes memories that are incongruent with mood may be recalled better than that are
Joseph Forgas modification of Bower’s proposal
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Affect Infusion Model: emotions infuse into a cognitive task, and influence memory and
judgement depending on the extent to which the task depends on complex and constructive
processing, or on matters that depart from prototypes
Depend strongly on the task being performed, AKA the context
Feelings as Information
Feeling as Information: assumes that emotions themselves are informative when we make
1. emotions provide us with rapid signal triggered by something in our environment
2. many of the judgements that we make are often too complex to review all the relevant evidence
e.g. comprehensive answer to the question of how satisfied you are with your political leader
might lead you to think about current environmental policies, state of health care, etc.
therefore, rely on simpler assessment based on our current feelings
emotions are heuristics: a short cut (plan or bias) to make judgement or take action
current feelings (heuristics) used as a judgement of life satisfaction **not valid when they
attribute those feelings to a specific source (like the weather)
Depends strongly on the task being performed, AKA the context (similar to emotion congruence)
Styles of Processing: different forms of reasoning, weighing evidence, and concluding.
Keith stanovich - 2 systems at work:
System 1: automatic and based on heuristics; frontal lobe dmg = too much system 2 and
Derives positive emotions which use heuristics over deliberate thinking
Anger make social judgements on others
System 2: slow and rational
Anxious mood yield deliberative thought and attn.. to detail.
Barbara Frederickson:The overarching function of positive emotions is to broad and build our
Positive emotions appears to be well-spring of complex, integrative, creative thoughts that are
essential to learning, insight, and healthy bonds
Creativity builds schemas and intellectual resources by enhancing our perspective taking, novel
ideas, and learning
Positive emotions build interpersonal resources; motivates us to approach, co-operate, express
affection, and build bonds with others
Effects of Moods and Emotions on Cognitive Functioning: emotions effect perception of events and
Perceptual Effects: our current moods and feelings lead us selectively to perceive emotion-congruent
objects and events
Niendenthal and setterland (1994): induced happy/sad moods w/ music and gave lexical decision
task. When participants were happy, they were quicker to ID happy than sad words and vice versa
Attentional Effects: most studied effects on emotion on attention are of anxiety
Emotional stroop test: Reaction time in naming the card’s colour is longer when the words printed
on them are emotionally significant. So Rape victim’s reaction times were longer in naming the
card’s colour when the words were associated to rape.
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Calvo & Avero: presemted neutral or emotional pic simultaneously. Ancious participants focused on
emotional picture in first half-second, then avoided it during later phase.
Attention lets us prioritize and concentrate on events and objects relevant to what we are doing
FMRI studies during task concentration, irrelevant patterns, obj, and people become
emotionally less attractive.
Effects on Remembering – people tend to recall emotionally salient events, yet current emotions bias
Bartlet: we recall things according to one’s schema. Though this yields incorrect results sometimes,
the emotional tone of an event is remembered.
Waganaar- recorded life events daily for 4 years and rated events on 3 scales: salience (how
frequently events lke this happened), emotional involvement, and pleasantness. After 5 years,
despite given clues, 20% of events completely forgotten and recal deteriorated over time.
Eyewitness Testimony: accuracy for emotionally involved events are heightened
In a followup study on witnesses, stressed witnesses recalled 93% after the incident and 88% after 5
months. Non-stressed witnesses recalled 75% at both times.
Events that recur in memory (e.g. traumatic events) become salient in memory
Persuasion – emotions affect evaluative judgements, future judgements and causal attribution
Congruence of emotions in the receiver of the message with those of the message itself, affect a
A study induced sad or anger in P by reaching hypothetical stories eliciting those emotions, and
were presented 2 messages about tax increases. The stories were sad-framed (tax increase to
help poor) or anger-framed (keep prisoners jailed). Sad people agreed to raise taxes when given
the sad-framed reason for increased taxes. Same with anger-primed.
Emotion affects persuasion by influencing the confidence people have in their thoughts.
Moral Judgement moral intuitions are affected by emotion, which guide judgements of right and
Properly functioning emotions act as guides to moral judgement (judgements about right and
wrong, character and virtue)
System one takes over moral judgement then system two follows.
Jonathan Haidt’s categories of moral intuition are consciously automatic and emotional in nature.
Harm-related emotions (sympathy, concern) derive from perceptions of vulnerability and need
for care; motivates prosocial responding.
Emotions related to fairness, reciprocity, and justice
Concemnation of others in anger, disgust, and contempt when they do immoral actions
fMRI study show amygdala + medial prefrontal cort predicted the size of punishment
participants deemed appropriate
research on harm and caring = trolleyology by Philippa Foot: trolley problem for testing moral
intuitions by means of vignette (pictures) of a trolley kills 5 people or 1 person depending on
whether the participant chooses to intervene by pulling a lever.
Aldenmann and Dieterich: used this paradigm but participants decided if they would push a
large person off a bridge to stopthe trolley from killing the 5 people.
People were less willing to push the large person over switching the points.
Research on fairness emotions affect our sense of deservingness and how we respond to
Ultimatum Game: ppl are less likely to accept a sum of money if another participant (the
confederate) gets a larger sum of money for the same task (irrational response bc they give up
receiving some money)
12 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion
offers that would be rejected slowed HR
fMRI studies found unfair offers elicited a amygdala response labelled by researchers as an
imediage aggressive response
unfair offers = emotions of withdrawal like disgust rather than anger
Emotions and the Law
Rules of Morality, rules of Obligation
coercion by fear of punishment
based on emotional-moral intuition of avoiding harm to others, people feel its right for misbehaving
people to be punished
disposition theory: we are disposed to like protagonist vs antagonists in novels.
Poetic justice: when protagonist achieves retribution or when antagonist is punished
People favour politicians who say they’ll be tougher on crime. This resonates with people based on
emotional-moral intuition of avoiding harm to others
Many think judges must make decisions w/out emotions.
In Jurors, anger leads to guilty verdict, and sadness leads to non-guilty (people attribute entents to
impersonal, situational causes)
Chapter 11: Individual differences
Early temperament contributes to personality: one’s characteristics are stable over time across
situations. These chars are emotion-based.
Biases of Emotion in Temperament and Personality central personality traits (neuroticism,
extraversion, and agreeableness) involve individual diffs