Chapters 8, 9,10,11,12

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Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014 Chapter 8: Development of Emotions in Childhood  3 main areas in which children experience emotional development: emotional expression, emotion recognition, and emotional regulation. Theories of Emotional Development Differential emotions theory (Carrol Izaard): basic/discrete emotions (joy, anger, sadness, disgust, fear) are “natural kinds”, innate, and mature on a developmental schedule.  All basic emotions have neural, expressive and feeling components that occur automatically and unconsciously in response to specific events.  Emotional response pattern are stereotypical but modifiable via info processing mechs  Emotional dev is due to maturation and particular types of interaction that lead to distinct emotions Differentiation Theory (Katherine Bridges, 1932): infants start with 2 basic emotional states (negativity/distress and positivity/pleasure) which differentiate later on  Possibly bc of changes in hedonic tone and general arousal.  Infant emotion = state of diffuse excitement. This differentiates into +/- affect, then to basic emotions.  Changes are based on biological maturation and interaction w/ environment. Functionalist: emotions are relational processes in which children establish, alter, and maintain their relationship w/ the environment  Emotion = intrapersonal feeling + interpersonal consequences  Eg) joy may signal success towards a goal  Facial expressions = communication which differ based on audience, event, and personal relevance  Emotional dev is due to social interaction Emotional Expression: facial expressions, vocal overtures, and gestures. Basic Emotions = building blocks for emotions req. for complex social interactions. 1. Disgust = earliest  Seen in newborns in resp to sour taste (sim expression other primates make to sourness) 2. Joy/happiness, 2months  1m: smiles aren’t social bc occur mostly during sleep  2m: social smiles occur; smile elicited from gentle stroking  3m.: smiles occur during infant-caregiver interactions, indicating positive emotion.  Smile for more attention & to engage caregiver. Research sugg. Children’s emotional display affects their parent’s emotions more than the reverse 3. Anger, 4-6m  Izard, bennet & colleagues (2002):w/ facial expression coding scheme, they studied 4mo & 12mo facial expr. in resp to arm restraint.  More 4mo children showed surprise than anger during arm restraint, revealing they respond emotionally different to same stimulus  Follow up @ 12mo: equally more Joy and anger than surprise, fear and sadness in arm restraint test  Interest and surprise responses decline b/w 4-12mo. Sugg. basic emotions become more st organized and differentiated over 1 year of life, but as specific as older children. 4. Sadness, 4mo  Michael Lewis and colleagues: sad facial expressions were accompanied by increased cortisol lvls like in adults BUT these sad expressions are also seem in response to disgust elicitors.  So, it’s uncertain if infant-sadness = adult-sadness. 1 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014 5. Fear, 7mo in unison w/ motor skill development  Bennet (2002): in resp to fear causing sitch (masked stranger), 4mo kids showed surprise and joy more than fear  Fear expressions occurred in any situation that didn’t provoke danger  4mo express fear in surprise eliciting situations (jack in the box)  Camras (2007): their cross-cultural study of 11mo American, Chinese, and Japanese saw little expression differences.  Fear and anger couldn’t be reliably distinguished according to the context in which they happened.  Braungart-Rieker, Hill-Soderlund, and Karass (2010)  4m: fear = weak resp to strangers  4m-12m: fear resp. strengthens and levels off at b/w 12-16m.  More temperamental fear = more fearful reactivity  More sensitive mom = slower fear increase rate in babies over time  6. Surprise = most common reaction to anger and fear eliciting situations which sugg. a lack of emotional specificity  Camras et al (2002): coded surprise facial expressions of 11mo. Found no difference b/w surprise and baseline events in surprise facial expression.  5-14mo: situations expected to cause surprise were accompanied by freezing behaviour. So, this may be a characteristic of early surprise reaction. Social Emotions: 18 Months and Beyond  18m: self-conscious emotions arise - empathy, concern-related altruism, embarrassment, and envy are recognized by combo of facial, vocal, and bodily expressions  12-18m: kids respond to another’s distress by giving the kind of comfort they themselves usually like (comforting, bringing a parent, or offering an object)  3y: comfort given is tailored more to the individual’s needs (fetch the child’s mother and respond with concern to the distress that they have caused)  2-3y: self-conscious evaluative emotions – pride, guild, shame, regret  Pride – you must compare your behaviour with some social standard to evaluate success and failure. Cognitive development that enable the emergence of emotions  Joy/happiness  Lavelli and Fogel (2005): changes in visual attn. parallel the emergence of smiling  Studied infant expressions of happiness during mom-child interactions on a weekly basis from birth to 3mo  1mo infants switched b/w simple atn to their moms face and neutral gazes away from face  2mo: more concentration on mother’s face (head, mouth, eyes) + social smiling  3-4m infants expect caregivers to respond to their overtures. No resp = sadness  Anger, 4-6m: caused by frustration in response to a blocked goal  Requires knowledfe of the goal one is trying to get and understanding one cant successfully achieve it  Associated w/ means-ends knowledfe @ 6m  Fear  Req. ability to compare a potentially threatening encounter w/ similar event in memory 2 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  Fear reflects an increase in mem capacity and visual discrimination  Appraisal theory: when the even such as seeing Mom is consistent with a goal (wanting mom to be present), joy will occur.  Mom leaves = sadness; mom might potentially arrive = hope or fear, but not joy.  Dev of Consciousness and mentalizing @ 2y – empathy and embarrassment  Self-reflection and self-other differentiation are 2 cognitive milestones in the emergence of the self-conscious emotions  Children must understand the subjectivity of other’s experiences (knowing other’s are in a different emotional state from them) and that they can be the object of another person’s attention (e.g. embarrassment requires you to understand you are the subject of social evaluation)  Self- recognition: awareness of the objectivity of one’s own body. Self-directed behaviour occurs at 18m.  Tested w/ mirror-rouge paradigm.  One can reflect on courses of action in making decisions and generate new solutions  Lewis (1997): self-recog abilities means you can show embarrassment and empathy  Theyre able to understand that they can be the target of others’ emotional displays.  Kids are less likely to imitate another person’s actions when these display elicit neg reactions  At 2-4y, the cognitive development of language causes an increase in talking about emotional states  Emotions that arise are pride, shame, guilt, regret  Use words: happy, sad, mad and scared  Mainly talk about their own emotions, but also attribute these emotions to others  18mo engage in cooperation and altruistic acts.  3-4y: attribute representational states to people, such as beliefs, thoughts and knowledge  Eg) reasoning that “john cheated bc he thought the teacher was not in the room”  Widen & Russel (2010): children being able to understand other’s minds shows they have a fuller understanding of emotion concepts and different types of emotions  The capacity to attribute beliefs to oneself or others parallels the development of certain social emotions  Eg) Pride, is a feeling of accomplishment; joy= belief that one successfully reached a goal.  5y: children connect others’ beliefs to their emotions  Theory of mind: ability to understand oneself and others in terms of mental states (emotions, desires, beliefs). This is needed for socio-emotional dev.  Jenkins and Astington (2002): theory of mind was responsible for kids increased capacity to engange in joint plans. Developmental Changes in Elicitation and Expression: Changes in the kinds of events that elicit specific emotions  Fear starts at 7 months, peaks at 12m, and declines over time.  4-5y: fear is caused by imaginary monsters, ghosts, etc.  Early school years, fear of physical harm emerges  Exposure to different eliciting situations across time creates a range of new emotional experiences  Emotional expression changes across developmental time.  Larson (2002): ha children record emotions daily. Result: downward shift in positive affect; increase in negative affect from pre-to kate adolescence  Cross-cultural study on emotional expression, Camras (2003): Compared to Amer. infants: 3 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  CH = less expressive, Ja= expressed more like Am. than Ch.  Specific cultural elements are associated with emotional expression  Eg) cultural differences in expression might be due to diffs in Parenting: Am. mothers encourage emotional expressions more than Ch Recognition of Emotions  Emotion expression and recognition must have coevolved since to relate to others, kids must recognize their own emotions.  Babies prefer human faces over other stim, which is essential to discriminating among people and learn about others emo states  Grossman (2010): emo recog relies on interaction b/w maturing perceptual syst and the capacity to discriminate emotional info  Increase in visual acuity = increased facial expression recog & emo recog Facial Expressions -  Habituation: Child can discriminate diff emotions when they look at newer emotion (using a drawn face with an emotion) longer vs. familiar emotions (a face w/ diff emotion that researchers habituated the baby to)  2-3m = discriminate happy, sad, surprised; 4-6m = discr. fear.  Pattern of dev parallels their ability to express that emotion.  Social referencing: guiding one’s own behaviour using emo displays of others  Based on dev of joint attn. which occurs b/w 6m-12m  Visual cliff test: 12mo more likely to cross when mom shows happy emotion (74%); non crossed when mom = fearful.  Labelling emotion: starts during preschool age. Happy, angry and sad are discriminated first. Then scared, surprise, disgusted.  Nelson & Russell (2011): 72% by Gr. 2/3 correctly ID joy, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and a neutral expression. Vocal Expressions: babies recog parent’s emotional expression via prosodic aspects of speech like intonation.  5mo – discriminate happy, sad, and angry voices.  Babies use Vocal expression as social referencing  Mumm et al (1996): 12mo engaged w/ new toy less and showed more distress when mom had negative expression  Visual cliff test – more babies crossed when in resp to positive vocal expressions, vocal + facial, but not facial alone. Postures and Gestures: children recog emotion via facial expression more than posture, but posture more than voice.  Nelson and Rusell (2011): P = 2-5yo.; 3 conditions: face exp, posture (face is blurred), and voice Multimodal Recognition of Emotions: children label emotions after exposure to facial, vocal, and postural cue combos.  in test above, w/ this method was more advantageous than voice or body only conditions, but not over face only condition.  Also, they showed 6-7yo ID pride only if facial and postural cues are given.  8yo, ID pride w/ facial cue alone. Infants’ Brain Mechanisms in the Recognition of Emotions  Facial recognition in the brain: 4 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  Amygdala (is fully developed in infants) + orbitofrontal cort (recog emo) = evidence for early facial recog  H evolved to attend to facial cues but exposure to H facial expressions is required to mature these early neural circuits  Individual exp has an effect on dev of facial recog  Pollack and sinha (2002): maltreated kids are more sensitive to signals of anger and lower sensitivity to sadness (fig. 8.9)  Emotion recog via voice- voice might convey more emo info than facial cues early in dev.  Amygdala + temporal regions = facial and vocal recog  Grossman (2010): localized activity in Rtemporal of 7mo in resp to happy/angry, but not neutral voices  Also, Stronger cortical activity if facial cues match vocal expressions  Flom and bahrick (2007): 3mo can ID emotion using audiovisual cues, but only at 5mo can they ID emo with vocal alone. The Negativity Bias: bad affects us more strongly than the good, develops early in life till adulthood.  Mumme & Fernald (2003): A child is less likely to play w/ a new toy if mother shows neg emo towards it.  BUT, the inverse isn’t true = child is not any more likely to play with a new toy if mother shows positive expressions towards it.  There’s a developmental shift from positivity bias towards negativity bias from 6m – 1y  This is bc negativity bias develops at 7m. So, 6-7mo are more sensitive to happy emo than fearful. But by 7mo, more attn. moves towards fearful and angry faces from happy faces. “My Oedipus Complex”  A short story about a boy whose father suddenly returns from war and becomes this wedge between the boy and his mothers’ relationship. Regulation of Emotions  Emotion regulation: whole set of auto/voluntary processes that modulates the onset, intensity, and duration of emotional exp, physiology, and expression. Regulatory Processes – interpersonal factors of emotional regulation 1. Change/alter the Situation. Eg) changing situation: parents reg emotion by selecting play environments, creating predictable schedules, offering emotional support at home; alter situation: avoid tantrum by helping a child retrieve a toy. 2. Excecutive function: processes that plan in relation to long-term goals and other people, negotiate the unexpected, and deal w/ dangers and immediate emotions.  Eg) An upset infant regulates their social and emotional exp by shifing attn. away from upsetting stimuli. 3. Cognitive change: altering the way an emotional charges situation is praised.  Eg) “jimmy pushed me” vs “jimmy bumped into me bc the hallway was crowded”  req. understanding one situation can be seen in 2 ways and beliefs. 4. Behavioural and physiological change: involves changing emotions once they have started NeurobiologicalDevelopment of Emotion (Ref. Fig. 8.10)  Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) and ANS become less sensitive to stress. This change lets Child and parent initiated regulatory processes can operate effectively. 5 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  higher baseline vagal tone = effective emo regulation.  Cortical control over arousal develops  2-4m: inhibitory centres in forebrain develops  improved attn.control, neonatal reflexes, conventional sleep patterns.  9-10m: As frontal lobes dev, resp inhibition improves  reg overt expression and tolerate arousing sitch.  2yr: lang. devs, and emo is regulated by talking about feelings with others & self-calming  3-5yr: effortful control (ability to ref attn.. and b auto and voluntarily) Temperament: One set of chars = child’s temperament, which is an innate part of personality. Eg) generally shy, neg, cheerful etc. across situations.  Important to study bc its seen in early dev and is relatively stable and predictive of later outcomes. Conceptual models of temperament: 1. Thomas and Chess  Difficult temperament: neg emotions, low adaptability, high activity, low emo reg. 2. Asendorpf, borkenau, ostendorf, & van Aken (2001)  Resilient: good self-reg, and low neg affect  Undercontrolled: impulsive, restless, neg emo  Overcontrolled: fearful, socially quiet 3. Bus and Plomin (1975) (ref T.8.3) (temperament dimension): (aspectof emo onto which each dimension maps)  Emotionality: fear, anger, distress  Activity: general arousal of motor system  Sociability: interest and posiive emo towards others  Impulsivity: time taken to express emo or activity 4. Rothbart (1991) (temperament dimension): (aspectof emo onto which each dimension maps)  Activity: general arousal of motor syst  Smiling and laughter: happiness or pleasure  Fear: fear  Distress to limitations: anger  Soothability: recovery time from neg emo when soothed  Persistence: duration of interest. Genetic Contributions to Emotional Development  If monozygotic twins are more sim than dizygotic twins = genetic influence Behaviour genetic studies: Give overall pic of heritability of traits by studyng combination of genes all contribute to specific behaviours  Mono twins are more sim on emotionality, activity, sociability, impulsivity, attn.control, and effortful control. Molecular genetics: study specific genes that may exert a certain behaviour  Most studied for emotional dev is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene. 5-HTTLPR: serotonin- transporter-linked-polymorphic region.  s/s (in both chromosomes) or s/l (one chromosome + long allele) version more amygdala activity to fear or threat than l/l  5-HTTLPR s/s = more attentive to positive emo than sad, threatening, or neutral stim 6 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  5-HTTLPR + COMT ( catechol-o-methyltransferase) in 7mo: responsiveness for facial expressions of emotion  5-HTTLPR operates w/ environment  carriers of short allele 5-HTTLPR have more depressive symptoms after maltreatment Chapter 9: Emotions in Social Relationships Interaction b/w emotions and social relationships - 2 ways of thinking 1. Emotions structure social relationships. Social emotions are scripts for distinct kinds of relationships. 2. Emotional responses are shaped by social relationships. They vary according to our situation (w/ friends, do we have power, social class) Emotions within Intimate Relationships intimate relationships shaped by goals. Desire + love = intimate bonds;  John Bowlby: emotions are central to intimate relationships throughout the lifespan.romantic love + social motivations of attatchment (trust + protection) + affiliation (cooperation) Principles of sexual love  Romantic relationship = Sex desires + romantic love (feelings of deep intimacy)  We feel romantive love for ONE other person = enduring relationship  Study on speedating (Eli Finkel): men + women interact for 2mins then rate sexual desire and chemistry for other P.  Unique desire + chemistry are reciprocated by target person  Those who felt sexual attr. were rated least on desire or chemistry  Sexual desires are responsive to specific cues (beauty, strength etc)  Passion is shown by touch, cuddling and sexual signalling  In women, sexual desires peak during ovulation  More time spent together in romantic relationships = sexual desire become romantic love.  Sexual desire differs from romantic love  In a study, participants excluded desire (59%), infatuation (82%) and lust (87%) from the category Love. Caring (8%), affection (27%). Emotions in marriage  Toxic emotional behaviours (Johm Gottman & Robert Levenson): 4 horsemen of the apocalypse; most damaging and divorce leading behaviours.  Criticism: high criticism = low marriage satisfaction  Defensiveness and stonewalling: resist or are defensive when dealing with problems:  Contempt: expressed in sneers and eye-rolls  93% of couples in their longitudinal study divorced w/in 14years when they expressed toxic emotional b.  Capitalizing upon the good (shelly gable): share what is good in life w/ partner = commitment and closeness.  Express appreciation and encouragement in partner vs stonewalling or criticizing.  Play: amusement, mirth and play = happy intimate life (especially during child rearing part in marriage)  Compassionate love: a positive regard for partner and appreciation of their faults and weaknesses.  Compassionate lovers are less likely to divorce after 4 years  Forgiveness: shift in ideas of reveng and voidance toward a positive understanding of the humanity of your partner. 7 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  Recognition that humans make errors. Leads to increased commitment and feelings of closeness. Emotions in Friendships  affiliation + gratitude +mimicry + social support = healthy friendship  Based on human social goal of affiliation: cooperation towards a common goal. Gratitude: a moral emotion which tracks cooperative lvls of non-kins, motivates altruistic and affectionate b, and positively reinforces acts of affectionate and cooperative b. Mimicry: emotional mimicry builds friendships and increase closeness.  We feel closer to those who share attitudes, preferences and our beliefs. Social support: strong feelings of being surrounded by good friends during difficulties.  Buffers people from emo breakdowns, reduces stress, anxiety, and uncertainty.  High social support = lower baseline lvls of cortisol which calms hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) Emotions in Hierarchical Relationships: about goals of power and assertion. Emotional displays negotiate rank positions, Position of power and social class influence emotions and our empathy. Emotional displays Negotiates Social Rank  Anger = high power emotion, leads to power gain w/in groups, and usually occurs b/w people who know and like each other when they feel wronged (diminished status or selfhood) causing a readjustment in the relationship.  Pride = HP emotion signalled in dominant behaviours  Embarassment = low power emotion, low status and physically smaller, signals submission.  Emotional displays signal and occupy different positions of power w/in hierarchies  High emotional exchanges allow group members to negotiate status differences  Eg) teasing uses emotion to negotiate social status  In a study, HP & LP frat members teased each other. HP displayed smiles, anger, contempt – HP emotions. LP members showed submissive emotions. (T9.2) Power and Emotion  HP yields greater positive emotions in different situations than LP people.  independent  LP  experience neg emotions like sadness, shame, guild, and anxiety bc attuned to potential threats in social env.  Highly empathetic  More likely to mimic their friends emotions Social Class and Emotion  Lower class position  yields more frequent and more intense threats, anxiety, and stress-related physiology  better judges of negative emotions in others  Lower-class mimic upper-class’ emotions more than vice versa in a study  Respond w/ greater compassion in self report and autonomic physiology (HR deceleration) to the suffering of others Emotions within and Between Groups: emotional resp bind us to groups  Groups allow for attachment, based on affiliative motivation of cooperation, organized in hierarchy of assertion Novels and films: Harry Potter and the Philosoher’s Stone 8 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  When Harry looked into the mirror of Erised he saw his parents bc of his attachment desire for his lost parents.  Gabriel and Young: readers tend to identify with protagonists in books which puts them in a good mood and causes them to rate high on life-satisfaction Anger and Intergroup Conflict  Potential for intergroup violence in humans is part of our primate heritage  Anger and rage produce violent b and derive from antisocial motivations  Leonard Berkowitz’s studied the determinants of violence concludes Anger sparks violence  Social conditions that increase the likelihood of intergroup aggression (insults, humiliations, inequality) increases violence when these conditions cause anger.  Outgroup anger is more likely when ingroup members feel their group is stronger and when they identify strongly with their own group. Disgust and Us-Them thinking  Feelings of disgusts peak during intergroup violence, and set the stage for laws that limit intergroup contact (e.g. anti-semitic laws of the Nazis)  Paul Rozin and colleagues: disgust protects the body from disease and contamination that might harm our soul or social order  Disgust yields outgroup prejudices. Infrahumanization: the tendency for ingroup members to attribute animal-like qualities to out-group members, dehumanizing them.  We privilege ingroup and associate better life outcomes as more likely with ingroup than outgroup. Emotional Processes that Improve Group Relations: Joint projects and forgiveness 4 skills of emotional intelligences Emotional Inteligence 1. Accurately perceive others emotins via facial expressions, vocalizations, posture and gestures. 2. Understand one’s own emotions 3. Use current feelins in decision making 4. Manage one’s emotions according to situation (emotion regulation)  Emotional intel benefits intimate bonds, friendships, hierarchical relations and relations w/ out- group. Chapter 10: Emotions and Cognition  Eadweard Mybridge: photographer with damage to his orbitofrontal cortex + killed out of jealousy  Effects on emotions and social lives; lack of information for an array of social emotions  lack of judgement/not rational; do not abide by morals, norms, and conventions  In order to function in society, our emotions need to be working in relation to each other to guide our reasoning and actions wisely; emotions influence our reasoning Passion and reason  orbitofrontal cortex processes social emotions. Dmg = lack of social judgement.  Emotions need to occur in relation to each other to wisely guide our reasoning and action  Magical transformation (Jean-Paul Sarte): emotions influence reasoning by changing how we see the world  Epicureans and Stoics (3rd century BCE): good life = emotions extirpated (erased) altogether  Emotions = lower, less sophisticated, more primitive ways of perceiving the world  Rational thought > primitive emotions  David Hume (18th century): "reason is and ought to be a slave of passion"  Emotions can be rational: 9 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014 1. Emotions are based on substantive beliefs (beliefs and appraisals supporting our emotions correspond to actual events in the world)  emotions are often the product of rather complex beliefs about real events in the world 2. Emotions help individuals function effectively in the social world 3. Emotion guides cognitive processes: perception, attention, access to certain memories, and bias the individual respond to the environment in ways that we recognize as valuable aspects of our humanity Emotions prioritize thoughts, goals, and actions  notion that emotions guide cognitive processes of rational, adaptive fashion emerged within a movement known as Cognitive Science (matured in the 1960's)  Simon (1967): emotions would be necessary in any intelligent being  they set priorities among the many different goals that impinge upon individuals at any moment in time  Emotions signal conflict and redirect the individual’s actions (Aristotle & Freud)  Emotions guide action in a world that is always imperfectly known, and can never be fully controlled  They offer bridges toward rationality to make up for our incompetency of knowing a fully rational solution  Better than simply acting randomly or becoming lost in thought trying to calculate the best possible action  Oatley & Johnson-Laird: emotions involve two different kinds of signalling in the nervous system 1. A signal that occurs automatically/unconsciously (primary appraisal)  Organizational” because it (rather simply) sets the brain into a particular mode of organization, or readiness, that is specific to the particular basic emotion  Emotional priming to a phenomena 2. A signal that derives from the secondary appraisal  “Informational” because the information it carries enables us to make mental models of events and their possible causes and implications  Normally, Organizational and Informational signals occur together to produce an emotional feeling with a consciously known cause and object  Helps responses to emergent opportunities and challenges in the environment  Can be dissociated (e.g. split brain patients, antidepressants) 3 perspectives on emotions in cognitive functioning: emotions exert effects on cognition because of congruency, they can be informative, and the lead to different reasoning styles. Emotion congruence  Gordan Bower (influential memory researcher): moods and emotions are associative networks in the mind  In memory, there are pathways devoted to emotions associative links to past experiences, images, related concepts, labels (semantic network)  We should be better able to learn material that is congruent without current emotion (emotion congruence) because they are more extensively integrated into ACTIVE memory structures  More easily retrieved at the time of recall  E.g. Participants who read a story in a happy mood will remember more positive facts  sometimes memories that are incongruent with mood may be recalled better than that are congruent!  Joseph Forgas  modification of Bower’s proposal 10 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  Affect Infusion Model: emotions infuse into a cognitive task, and influence memory and judgement depending on the extent to which the task depends on complex and constructive processing, or on matters that depart from prototypes  Depend strongly on the task being performed, AKA the context Feelings as Information  Feeling as Information: assumes that emotions themselves are informative when we make judgements  two assumptions: 1. emotions provide us with rapid signal triggered by something in our environment 2. many of the judgements that we make are often too complex to review all the relevant evidence  e.g. comprehensive answer to the question of how satisfied you are with your political leader might lead you to think about current environmental policies, state of health care, etc.  therefore, rely on simpler assessment based on our current feelings  emotions are heuristics: a short cut (plan or bias) to make judgement or take action  current feelings (heuristics) used as a judgement of life satisfaction  **not valid when they attribute those feelings to a specific source (like the weather)  Depends strongly on the task being performed, AKA the context (similar to emotion congruence) Styles of Processing: different forms of reasoning, weighing evidence, and concluding.  Keith stanovich - 2 systems at work:  System 1: automatic and based on heuristics; frontal lobe dmg = too much system 2 and overthink decisions.  Derives positive emotions which use heuristics over deliberate thinking  Anger  make social judgements on others  System 2: slow and rational  Anxious mood yield deliberative thought and attn.. to detail.  Barbara Frederickson:The overarching function of positive emotions is to broad and build our resources  Positive emotions appears to be well-spring of complex, integrative, creative thoughts that are essential to learning, insight, and healthy bonds  Creativity builds schemas and intellectual resources by enhancing our perspective taking, novel ideas, and learning  Positive emotions build interpersonal resources; motivates us to approach, co-operate, express affection, and build bonds with others Effects of Moods and Emotions on Cognitive Functioning: emotions effect perception of events and attention. Perceptual Effects: our current moods and feelings lead us selectively to perceive emotion-congruent objects and events  Niendenthal and setterland (1994): induced happy/sad moods w/ music and gave lexical decision task. When participants were happy, they were quicker to ID happy than sad words and vice versa Attentional Effects: most studied effects on emotion on attention are of anxiety  Emotional stroop test: Reaction time in naming the card’s colour is longer when the words printed on them are emotionally significant. So Rape victim’s reaction times were longer in naming the card’s colour when the words were associated to rape. 11 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  Calvo & Avero: presemted neutral or emotional pic simultaneously. Ancious participants focused on emotional picture in first half-second, then avoided it during later phase.  Attention lets us prioritize and concentrate on events and objects relevant to what we are doing  FMRI studies  during task concentration, irrelevant patterns, obj, and people become emotionally less attractive. Effects on Remembering – people tend to recall emotionally salient events, yet current emotions bias recollections  Bartlet: we recall things according to one’s schema. Though this yields incorrect results sometimes, the emotional tone of an event is remembered.  Waganaar- recorded life events daily for 4 years and rated events on 3 scales: salience (how frequently events lke this happened), emotional involvement, and pleasantness. After 5 years, despite given clues, 20% of events completely forgotten and recal deteriorated over time. Eyewitness Testimony: accuracy for emotionally involved events are heightened  In a followup study on witnesses, stressed witnesses recalled 93% after the incident and 88% after 5 months. Non-stressed witnesses recalled 75% at both times.  Events that recur in memory (e.g. traumatic events) become salient in memory Persuasion – emotions affect evaluative judgements, future judgements and causal attribution  Congruence of emotions in the receiver of the message with those of the message itself, affect a messages’ persuasiveness.  A study induced sad or anger in P by reaching hypothetical stories eliciting those emotions, and were presented 2 messages about tax increases. The stories were sad-framed (tax increase to help poor) or anger-framed (keep prisoners jailed). Sad people agreed to raise taxes when given the sad-framed reason for increased taxes. Same with anger-primed.  Emotion affects persuasion by influencing the confidence people have in their thoughts. Moral Judgement  moral intuitions are affected by emotion, which guide judgements of right and wrong  Properly functioning emotions act as guides to moral judgement (judgements about right and wrong, character and virtue)  System one takes over moral judgement then system two follows.  Jonathan Haidt’s categories of moral intuition are consciously automatic and emotional in nature.  Harm-related emotions (sympathy, concern) derive from perceptions of vulnerability and need for care; motivates prosocial responding.  Emotions related to fairness, reciprocity, and justice  Concemnation of others in anger, disgust, and contempt when they do immoral actions  fMRI study show amygdala + medial prefrontal cort predicted the size of punishment participants deemed appropriate  research on harm and caring = trolleyology by Philippa Foot: trolley problem for testing moral intuitions by means of vignette (pictures) of a trolley kills 5 people or 1 person depending on whether the participant chooses to intervene by pulling a lever.  Aldenmann and Dieterich: used this paradigm but participants decided if they would push a large person off a bridge to stopthe trolley from killing the 5 people.  People were less willing to push the large person over switching the points.  Research on fairness  emotions affect our sense of deservingness and how we respond to unfairness  Ultimatum Game: ppl are less likely to accept a sum of money if another participant (the confederate) gets a larger sum of money for the same task (irrational response bc they give up receiving some money) 12 PSYC18: Psychology of Emotion Winter 2014  offers that would be rejected slowed HR  fMRI studies found unfair offers elicited a amygdala response labelled by researchers as an imediage aggressive response  unfair offers = emotions of withdrawal like disgust rather than anger Emotions and the Law Rules of Morality, rules of Obligation  coercion by fear of punishment  based on emotional-moral intuition of avoiding harm to others, people feel its right for misbehaving people to be punished  disposition theory: we are disposed to like protagonist vs antagonists in novels.  Poetic justice: when protagonist achieves retribution or when antagonist is punished  People favour politicians who say they’ll be tougher on crime. This resonates with people based on emotional-moral intuition of avoiding harm to others Dispassionate Judgements?  Many think judges must make decisions w/out emotions.  In Jurors, anger leads to guilty verdict, and sadness leads to non-guilty (people attribute entents to impersonal, situational causes) Chapter 11: Individual differences  Early temperament contributes to personality: one’s characteristics are stable over time across situations. These chars are emotion-based. Biases of Emotion in Temperament and Personality central personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness) involve individual diffs
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