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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18 – Chapter 14 TextBook Notes Chapter 14: Psychotherapy, Consciousness and Well-being Psychotherapy therapies and the emotions • Emotions can be vague and unformed, with meanings that only become clear as we express them to others. • Emotions are our geninuine to our most authentic selves • Signs of wrong relations can include strong and disturbed emotions o Practices and rituals are followed that center on the disturbed emotions. • Western approach to psychotherapy - The therapist tries to work with the client to make sense of emotion-based symptoms. • Medical approach – trying directly to relieve the suffering and anguish of such symptoms. The basic idea of psychoanalytical therapy • Freud’s therapy was aimed at recalling the trauma, enabling it to become conscious, allow the emotions associated with it to be experienced and expressed, thus freeing the patient from the trauma’s continuing harmful effects. o Neurotic people suffer from inner conflict: both feeling sexually attacted to someone and feeling a the same time inhibited by society Detractors ardued that psychoanalusis was less a threapeturic procduecure • Freud proposed a therapy of listening carefully, “evenly hovering attention” Therapy’s focus on the emotions • Many clinical psychologists and psychiatrists would describe themselves as eclectic, which meanst that they incorportate selvested aspects from different variants into their practice. • Therapy – is an interaction with another person in which, as a patient or clinet, one can discover some of the properties of ones emotion schemas – most typically 1 :¨·.·¨: `·. Samantha Pokhoy PSYC18 – Chapter 14 TextBook Notes schemas of anxiety, anger and despair – and can to soem extent change how these schema operate. o It provides the context of a relationship, which one may experience ones emotion schema, understand them better, take responsibily for them, and modify some aspects of ones behaviour accordingly. Psychoanalysis: unconscious schemas of relating • Transference – is the manifestiation of emtion shcmeas, mental modesthat embody ways of relating to others that have become habitual. o A set of emotional attitudes toward significant tohers, from the past, such as parents o They are new editions or facsimiles of the impulses and phantaises which... replace some earlier person by the person of the pshycian. o A transference of positive emotions invites the other into a warm and cooperative relationship, and the othen is then often able to respond warmely in return. • Psychoanalytic therapy - is designed to recognize transferenceesand to bring them to conciouness. o Emotional schemas that are problematic are often based on intense wishes bound tightly to beliefs that people hold about waht is wrogn with them or how they can never be satisified. • Core Conflictual Relationship Themes in transference they have gone some way to showing that when therapies recognize and interpret occurances of these themes, the patient makes better progress in therapy. Cognitive-behavioural therapy: changing emotions by thought • The way we change our emotions can be traced back to the times of: o epicureans founder was Epicurus who lived near Athens, around 300 BCE devoted to the prsuit of pleasure belived the idea that human beings have a right to the pursuit of happiness 2 :¨·.·¨: `·. Samantha Pokhoy PSYC18 – Chapter 14 TextBook Notes thought that one should live in a simple way and enjoy the simple pleasures, like food and the enjoyment of friendship shifts in attention from irrational desires to more worthwhile ones o Stoics. From the stoa Indifferent to pleasure or pain The ideas of the stoics were thought to have influenced the acceptance of chrisitnaity by the romans following he conversion of the emperor Constantine. More radical than the epicureans – they thought that because emotions derivies from desires, therefore to free onesled from crippling and destructive emotions, one should extirpate amlos all desires. Belived that most emotions, especially such emotions as anger, anxiety nand lust are damaging to the self and to the society and so should be extirpated • The philosophers of Epicurean and Stoic schools developed subtle and profund understandings of emotions. • Beck developed the cognitive-behavioural therapy – it is based on teaching people how to recognize and avoid errors of evualtion about the incidiencts that lead to empotions. • Writing in most culturs have been used and become one of the main means for reflecting on, and becoming conscious of, meaning of emotions. Emotion-focused threaphy: chaning emotions by emotions • The only way to change an emotion is by means of another emotion, and this may be taken as the goal of emotion-focused therapy o Work on such clues to build some consciously comprehended mofel of our goal structure as a part of our sense of self. o Is to recognize emotions that we have not allowed ourselves to experience fully enough 3 :¨·.·¨: `·. Samantha Pokhoy PSYC18 – Chapter 14 TextBook Notes Therapy consists of encouraning a fuller experience of such emotions, primay emotions Secondary emotions – climents experience emotions too mch, clients report the emotins as troublesome. • Eg women who are sad when really they are angry. Men who are afraid, but yet cover us their fear with anger. When primary emotions are not know/accepted they can metamorphose into secondary emotions Instrumental emotions: the emotions that people have learned will help them get their way – the tears that elict sympathy, the easy irritation that makes others hesitate to challenge or to be close. Outcomes of therapy • The average person receiving therapy was better off than the 80% of control group members who did not revieve threeapy. • Types of therapy- o Antidepressant
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