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Final exam lec 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Carly Prusky

PSYC21- November 12 What is a family?  Sense of commitment and identification  Adult and child  Economic, social, emotional support system  Structure may vary  Earliest contact  Intense and most enduring of all interpersonal bonds  Shared memories of past and expectations of future  Standard of comparison for other relationships  Change in one member changes whole dynamic (ex: divorce)  System for socialization  Family influences kids directly and indirectly o Direct effects  praise, criticism, hugging/ spanking  Well functioning families  parents : good relationship & kids care about their parents  Dysfunctional  Kids = anti-social behaviour & parents = bad relationship o Difficulty to change patterns b/c systems in general resist change o More adaptable the family, the better they function Couple System:  Mutually supportive, highly involved with kids, very affectionate towards kids  In response, kids are more well adjusted and positive (model that behaviour)  Parents in conflict inflict problems on their kids. o Kids = depression, aggression, high level of stress o More fighting child sees with parents, more their distress levels go up  Poor emot. Reg for kids  one of the many effects o When conflictws are more constructive, kids demonstrate more constructive methods when they’re in a conflicting situation Social Learning Theory:  Kids learn by observing their parents  Conflict = something to learn from (may not always be bad) Attachment Theory:  Kids are too distressed (conflicts not positive)  Intervention programs  teaching couples about the effects of constructive and deconstructive methods  Division of labor o Dads staying at home more and moms beg to go to work Parent- child theory:  Parents socialize their kids (use reinforcement or praise/punishment)  Reinforcement  establish rules  Praise/ punishment  violation or obeying rules  Modelling  hope for kids to adapt their behaviours Emotional Involvement:  Warm  involved, genuine interest o Linked to higher self-esteem and intellectual abilities  Cold  not involved o Linked to delinquency and aggression - How you respond to a child is child dependent o Based on behaviours the child demonstrates o Shouldn’t respond to all kids the same way - In parenting, both warmth and coldness are important and required - Power-assertive discipline  most ineffective o Loose a good teachable moment o “because I said so” –not effective o Exploring the “why” is important Control and Discipline:  Inductive discipline  offering explanations o Kids will therefore engage in more prosocial behaviours  Reinforcing works better than punishing  “Parenting styles”  combination of different styles o Emotionality & control o 4 parenting styles  slide 29 & also in textbook  1. Authoritative parenting style o Encourage kid’s autonomy & independence o Ideal child  2. Authoritarian Parenting o clear roles, obey b/c they want to please, parents are low in responsiveness
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