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Final Exam lec 2.docx

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Carly Prusky

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PSYC21- November .19 Peer Relations:  Children learn about themselves as they learn about others  Kids create their own culture and enviro with their peers (separate from the adult world)  Important distinctions between: o Peer and friend o Dyads and groups  Dyads  interaction between two  Ex parents and kid  Groups cliques, teams  Play is very important till age 7-9 for social learning o Shift 7-9, more about evaluation (don’t want to be rejected)  Ages 6-10 (fear of being alone)  1 6 months of life, look and touch other babies  Enjoy being with other infants  2 half of first year, beginning to recognize other infants as social peers  Understand another child, can be engaged Social exchanges between toddlers:  Age 1-2, increase in turn taking and positive affect  Age 2 –play in groups, more complex social exchanges (pref peers to adults) o Want to have someone at their same level  Age 2-3—more shared meaning, driven by pretend play  Table 8.2 (onlooker, parallel plau, associative play, cooperative play)  Importance of pretend play for social competence o Teaches them how to coordinate their activities with other children nd o Appears ½ way through 2 year o 4 year olds = longer play sequences o Pretend play peels at age 6  Increase in peer companions with age (esp 7-8)  Decrease in parent / any adult companions (esp 2-3)  Being nice to friends increases prosocial behaviours School years:  Preference for companionship with same-age peers o Different with older siblings (step-ahead) o Different with younger siblings (step-behind)  Age 3-4  equally likely to choose same gender or other-gender companion  Up to 7  willing to play with a peer of the other gender  School years (gr 1 & 2) other gender = cooties (pref their own gender )  Different in playing styles between genders o Females = quieter, smaller groups, play closer to school building, more details, more intimate) o Males= more rapport talking, high energy plays, play farther away from the building , more competitive, prefer sportive games, high rapport talking (abt information)  Gender stereos Adolescnece:  Teens= 2 x’s more time with peers than parents  Peer interactions= perspective of equals o Intellectually developed  Peers have huge influence o Clothing, drugs, etc  Esp influential if teen lacks parental support o Permissive parenting (no rules)  more susceptible to peer pressure o Authoritative parenting = less susceptible Peers as socializers:  Peer tells kids how to behave o Praise positive/ desirable behaviours o Criticize neg/ unfavourable behvs Peer status:  Measured by sociometric technique o 5 pt like scale o Rated by how much you like to play with them o Categorize kids into diff type groups  1. Popular children  helpful, friendly, most nominated to be a bff, obey rules, do well in school  2. Average children  not too likely to be bff, but well liked, some friends but not as well liked as pop kids  3. Neglected children  shy, socially withdrawn, ignored, not disliked but also not anyones bff  4. Controversial children  either really well liked (bff) or very disliked  5. Rejected children  disliked by many peers, liked by bery few  Rejected peers find each other and become friends  2 types of pop kids: o Popular pro-social – friendly toward their peers o Popular aggressive –athletic, arrogant, cool, attractive  Neglected  watch others from afar, don’t engage in interaction o Unsociable or socially uninterested Factors:  Biological predisposition o Temperament  Pop kids neither inhibited nor impulsive  Temp x enviro interactions  Social cognitive o Social knowledge  Invite others to join in  Probs in soc understanding  maladaptive behvs)  Physical Appearance o Blending in –clothing, names, ethnicity, gender typing behvs o Easily accept peers of the same ethnicity (v.impt factor)  Peer status o On the basis of past encounters (feelings) o Kids status= quite stable overtime o Own behv contributes  if you want to change status, you have to change your own behv  usually doesn’t happen  kids share more with their friends unless they are competitive with their friends  friends disagree more because they have more of a connection  solve conflicts and preserve friendship  friends = more self-disclosing Pros and cons of friendship:  pros= high support intimacy, kids with friends = less lonely and depressed  cons = some friends pose risks rather than protection o friendships b/w rejected kids may reinforce maladaptive behvs Early dating and peer relations (study):  Miller et al o Early adolescence (gr 7)  Research suggests that dating relationship relate to various aspects of adolescence dev such as peer soc. Status, involvement in prob behvs (ie. Sexual activity) o Assoc b/w romantic partner and gender may depend on age  Hypotheses: o Pop adolescence/ leaders –more likely to have romantic relationships o Gr 7’s in romantic relationships = higher rates of prob behvs  Methods: o Peer nominations (name students liked most and liked the least)  sociometric categories (5 types) o Also assessed
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