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PSYC21H3 (14)

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Carly Prusky

PSYC21- November. 24 Moral Development:  1. Moral Identity o How you see yourself  2. Moral Will Power o What you show to other people  3. Moral Exemplars o Personality/identity portrayed to others - Sharing fosters more prosocial dev - Social behvs of many kids = immoral antisocial / prosocial moral behv Components of moral dev:  1. Cognitive judgements of good and bad  2. Behavioural  actions of good and bad  3. Emotional  feelings about good and bad Human Behv:  Milgrim experiment  looks at obedience to authority figures o What happens to personal moral standards when someone tells you what to do o Study came about after Nazi Germany o Study  lethal electric shocks; memory test; actor  Moral dilemma: to continue or not  Standford Prison Exp  1971 (Zimbardo) o Random participants, all male, random assignment –prisoners or guards o Violation of human rights o Experiment shutdown after 6 fays (gf of Zimbardo intervened) o Situation changes people  Jane Elliot’s classroom experiment o Wanted to teach class (Christian Caucasian) students about discrimination o Happened soon after assassination of martin luther king jr o Blue eyes vs brown eyes  Created aggression and division among the kids  Environment really impt to our moral dev Piaget’s Moral Dev:  Heteronomous (unchangeable rules) & Autonomous  Stages (lowest to highest stage) : o Premoral stage (under 5) o Moral Realisim (age 5+) o Moral absolution o Immanent justice o Moral reciprocity (age 11+)  Limitation of stages = culturally inconsistent  When stories simplified, earlier displays from kids Kohlberg’s moral dev:  More concerned with why someone should do something o Preconventional level – based on desire to avoid punishment  Stage 1 = avoid punishment  Stage 2 = seek rewards  Ex: being nice to others to make them be nice to you o Conventional level –motive to conform (approval from others)  Stage 3 = conform to get approval  Mutual interpersonal relationships  Moral standards seen as good or bad  Often adopt parents morals to be seen as good in the eyes of the parents  Stage 4= conform with society’s laws  Adolescence may reason: to protect society, we need to follow laws  See benefit at this stage o Post-conventional level = judgements internalized  Stage 5 = based on human rights  Having a social contract  Evaluate; human rights= v.impt at this stage  Stage 6= based on abstract principles  Slide 16  Kohlberg o 20% boys age 10 = stage 1 o 60% boys age 10 = stage 2  Fewer than 10% by age 24 o Stage 4 most common by age 36 (60%) o Nobody uses stage 6, emerges at age 18 though o V. few use stage 5 o Limitations = stage 5 and 6 less support because few ppl reach this stage  theory may not be universal  collectivistic cult – focus on community more  only included boys/ men  time which people live affect people’s judgements (ex: 70’s v.diff from 90s)  only based on verbal responses  kohlberg’s hypothetical dilemmas differ with real-life dilemmas New approaches:  Carol Gillian  address gender issues (incorporated females)  Found females more caring in approach to dilemmas  Males more focused on justice  Moral reasoning vary in diff situations o Marriage guided by stage 3 o Legal syst guided by stage 4 o Business world guided by stage 2 New approaches:  Incorporate freedom of speech and freedom of religion  Kids judgements about govt changes as age increases Self-regulation of behv:  3 phases (kids differ in times they reach each stage) o 1. Control phase o 2.
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