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c21 final notes.docx

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Carly Prusky

Chapter 7 – Family - Family – a social unit in which adult spouses or partners and their children share economic, social, and emotional rights and responsibilities and a sense of commitment and identification with each other - Families vary in their structure, they are children’s earliest and most sustained of social contact - Families are also systems for socialization – family members channel children’s impulses into socially accepted outlets and teach children the skills and rules they need to function in society - Family system is composed of a number of subsystems o Mother and father o Mother and chid o Father and child o Mother father, and child o And subsystems involving siblings - Socialization takes place within each of these subsystems THE FAMILY SYSTEM - Family members influence each other directly and indirectly - Direct effects are obvious: spouses effect each other by praising or criticising; parents affect their children by hugging or spanking; children affect their parents by clinging or talking back - Indirect effects involve a 2-step process o Fathers affect their children indirectly by modifying their relationship with their mother, which then affects the child’s dev o Mothers affect their children indirectly by modifying the quantity and quality of father-child interaction, which in turn affects the child’s beh o Children influence the relationship b/w their mother and father indirectly by alternating the beh of either parent - Negative patterns of interaction intensify and solidify in families with an aggressive child - The key to good family functioning is adaptability The Couple System - Directly or indirectly, the quality of the couple’s union facilitates – or hampers – the quality of parenting, sibling, relationships, and children’s dev - How does the couple’s relationship affect children? o When partners are mutually supportive, they are more involved with their children, their child- rearing practices are more competent, and their relationships with their children are more affectionate and responsive o When the conflict occurs in later years, the children are likely to become aggressive or depressed o Children are directly affected by their parents conflict when they witness their arguments and fights o Exposure to constructive conflict could even teach children how to negotiate conflict and resolve disagreements with others outside the family o Children were most likely to have problems if their parents expressed anger frequently, intensely, physically, and w/o resolution o The indirect effect of parental conflict occurs when marital difficulties affect parents’ child- rearing practices and child-rearing practices affect children’s dev o Several different theoretical explanations have been offered to account for the effects of parental conflict on children’s social dev o Social learning theory suggests that children learn how to interact with ppl and resolve conflicts by watching their parents; if parents fight, children learn aggressive interaction strategies o Attachment theory suggests that as a result of exposure to conflict b/w their parents, children experience emotional arousal and distress and develop a sense of emotional insecurity, which leads to later problems in social interactions o Third theory emphasizes children’s cognitive process, the impact of parental conflict depends on how children understand it  If they perceive the conflict as threatening, they become anxious, depressed, and withdrawn; if they perceive the conflict, the children as being their fault, they are more likely to act out; if the parents resolve the conflict, the children are less likely to have these problems b/c they expect that they, too, will be able to resolve conflicts o A fourth theory suggests that poor parental mental health accounts for the effects of parental cthflict on children’s functioning o 5 explanation is that the effect of parental conflict on children’s social beh is, in part, genetic o Researchers have found a stronger link b/w marital conflict and adolescent conduct problems families in which the mothers or fathers are identical twins than in families in which the mothers or fathers are fraternal twins - And baby makes three: the impact of a new baby on the couple system o The most immediate effect occurs after the birth of the couple’s first child o This change brings a more traditional division of labour, less marital satisfaction as well o Satisfaction declines more markedly in women o Father’s satisfaction also decreases but more slowly; it may be only gradually that men become aware of the restrictions of a baby imposes on their lives The Parent-Child system - How parents socialize children o Becomes more deliberate as children achieve greater mobility and begin to use language o If parents lie to their friends, ridicule their coworkers, and bully their children, these negative beh are as likely to be adopted by the children as are the parent’s positive beh and more likely to be emulated than the beh parents preach about - Differences in socialization approaches o One diff is related to their emotional involvement: some parents are warm and responsive in their approach to socialization; others are cold and rejecting  When parents are warm and loving, socialization is more effective o 2 diff, related to the parents’ level of control: some parents are permissive and undemanding, pretty much allowing children to do as they wish; others are demanding and restrictive  If parents use the min amount of pressure necessary to bring the children’s beh into line with the parent’s goals, children are more likely to cooperate and to internalize their parent’s standards  Too little control, their children are more likely to have externalizing beh problems  Exert too much control, they may influence the children’s immediate beh o A key aspect of strict control is physical punishment, linked to a variety of negative outcomes, esp. increases in children’s aggression o Diff types of physical punishment, including 1. Conditional spanking – used to back up milder disciplinary tactics such as reasoning and time outs a. Associated with reductions in noncompliance and antisocial beh even more than nonphysical disciplinary tactics i.e. ignoring, time out 2. Physical punishment as the predominant disciplinary tactic 3. Severe punishment, including shaking and spanking that was anger driven and out of control o Only the latter 2 types of punishment were associated with negative child outcomes, including antisocial beh and poor conscience dev o Mild, judicious physical punishment can be an effective disciplinary strategy o The negative effects of punishment can be avoided by making punishment contingencies clear and reinforcing appropriate beh - Parenting styles o 4 parenting styles 1. Authoritarian parenting – emotionally rejecting and highly controlling 2. Permissive parenting – emotionally positive and low in control 3. Authoritative parenting – emotionally positive and firmly controlling 4. Uninvolved parenting – emotionally negative and low in control o Children in the friendly energetic group who were socially competent in every way, were likely to have authoritative parents  Permitted the children considerable freedom and were not intrusive; they imposed restrictions in areas in which they had more knowledge or insight, and they were firm in resisting children’s efforts to get them to agree to demands o Conflicted-irritable children, who tended to be fearful and moody, were likely to have authoritarian parents  These parents were rigid, power-assertive, harsh, and unresponsive to the children’s needs  These children often felt trapped and angry but also fearful of asserting themselves in a hostile environment o Impulsive-aggressive group were likely to have permissive parents  These parents had affectionate relationships with their children, but b/c of their excessively lax and inconsistent discipline and their encouragement of the children’s free expression of impulses, they did not diminish the children’s uncontrolled, noncompliant, and aggressive beh o Uninvolved parenting style or disengaged  Reflects the beh of parents who are indifferent to their children  Do w/e is necessary to minimize the costs of having children – giving them a little time and effort as possible  Focus on their own needs before those of the children  Children with these types of parents are likely to be impulsive, aggression, noncompliant, and moody  As adolescents, they may be delinquents beh decrease and social skills improve o Table 7.1 pg. 217-218 - Why parents have different parenting styles o One is the quality of the parent’s relationships with each other  Parents in good marriages are more likely to be authoritative o A 2ndsource of diff is parents personalities  Those with less agreeable personalities are more authoritarian less responsive, more rejecting, and more power assertive  Parents’ abilities also affect their parenting styles: parents who are not taking another person’s perspective are more authoritarian; parents who are good at adapting to changing or stressful circumstances are more authoritative  Parents mental health: neurotic parents are more negative and rejecting with their children  An uninvolved style of parenting is often found in parents who are depressed or stressed by marital discord or divorce o How much education parents have  Parents with less education use more authoritarian discipline o The parents family of origin  Parents are affected by their experiences they had with their own parents when they were young  To some extent parenting styles are transmitted from one generation to the next o The circumstances in which families live  Their style of strict control may be adaptive b/c living in a dangerous neighbourhood brings with it a higher risk that children will be harmed or become involved in antisocial activities o Children beh affects parenting style  Children with difficult temperaments or beh problems provoke increasingly coercive socialization strategies from their parents  Children with fearful temperaments are more accepted by their parents and respond to more subtle parental socialization strategies - Socialization: from bidirectional to transactional o Socialization is bidirectional – parents’ beh affects children’s and vice versa o Children and their parents change each other over tie in a transactional process o Parents warmth toward their children predicted the children’s empathy 2yrs later and children’s externalizing beh problems predicted less warm and responsive parenting over the same period - Mothers and fathers parenting o Fathers make a significant contribution to their children’s social beh, ind of the mothers contribution o If fathers are more positive and prosocial in their interactions with their children, the children are more competent with peers; if fathers are confrontational and angry in their interactions, their children are less competent o Fathers are more likely to be involved in play activities with their children than mothers are o The quality of their play differs  Fathers play is more physically arousing  Mothers play conventional games, interact with toys, and talk more  Even with adolescents, fathers are more playful than mothers – joking and teasing o Fathers may use their distinctively arousing style as a way to inc the salience of their interactions despite their more limited time with the child The Co-parenting System - This system have identified 3 diff co-parenting patterns - 1. co-parenting is cooperative, cohesive, and child centered; these families are likely to have a high degree of family harmony - 2. co-parenting is hostile; these parents actively compete against each other for their children’s attention and loyalty - 3. spouses invest diff amounts of time and energy in parenting, leading to an imbalance in their involvement with the child o This discrepancy can result from gatekeeping, when one parent limits or control the other parent’s level of participation - These three co-parenting patterns are related to children’s social development – even after they control for other factors, such as the mother’s well-being, the overall quality of the parents’ marriage, and the mothers and fathers warmth when interacting with the child ind - Cooperative co-parenting has positive effects on children’s social-emotional dev and can even reduce the negative effects of a problematic temperament The Sibling system - Interactions b/w siblings provide opportunities for children to learn positive and negative ways of interacting and may be more emotionally intense than exchanges with other family members and friends - How are siblings affected by birth order o Lives of the later born children are filled with the doings and demands of other children o Firstborn children are more adult oriented, helpful, and self-controlled than their siblings, and they tend to be more studious and conscientious o Firstborn sons tend to be conservative and like to maintain the status quo, perhaps b/c of the expectations and demands their parents place on them o 2 born are more likely to support change and innovation o Later born children also tend to be less fearful and anxious; they experience less guilt, have less difficulty coping with stressful situations, are less likely to be treated for psychological problems, and have more self-confidence and social poise o Only children are likely to be high achievers, but sustained by their close relationship with their parents, they are less anxious and show more personal control, maturity, and leadership  Seem to make more positive adjustments than children who are involved in sibling rivalry - Birth order and parent-child interaction o If parents are responsive to the needs of their older children and help them understand the feelings of their younger sibling, intense sibling rivalry is less likely o If fathers become more involved with their firstborn children after the new sibling arrives, this can counter the children’s feelings of displacement and jealousy o One positive effect of the birth of a child may be that fathers get more involved in child care o Having contact with children outside the family can also be a buffer against the birth of another child o In the family mesosystem – when a new sibling is born results in a change in contact with the outside world – the exosystem – when the older siblings stop participating in day care o Brothers and sisters may be treated different or at least perceive themselves to be treated differently by their parents o Non-shared environments within the family that lead to different dev consequences for the siblings o If children perceive themselves to be treated worse than their sibling, adverse effects such as heightened sibling rivalry and increased stress are common - Birth order and sibling interactions st o Older sisters often act as caregivers; a 1 born girls in a large family may warm bottles, change diapers, and soothe a squalling infant with the efficiency and skill of a young mother o Older siblings can also serve as resources for their younger siblings in times of stress, particularly if the children does not have a supportive adult or helpful friend o Sisters esp. are protective in a family crisis such as divorce o Preschool age older siblings are likely to use demonstrations as they try to teach their younger sibs how to do things o School age older siblings are more likely to use detailed verbal instruction and scaffolding , esp. when the younger sibling is quite young o Older siblings show more nurturing beh and more antagonistic beh toward their younger siblings compared with the younger siblings beh toward them o Older siblings can also serve as deviant role models o Having good relationships with siblings can compensate for poor relationships with peer And vice versa The Family Unit: Stories, Rituals, and Routines - Families develop distinct climates, which provide diff socialization contexts for children - Stories help transmit family values and reinforce the uniqueness of the family as a unit o They teach children about their identity and often encapsulate a message about the family - Routines are day to day activities that keep the family functioning such as making dinner - Rituals involve formal religious observances, family celebrations, and rites of passage - They have symbolic value and tend to explain this is who we were as a family; also provide continuity across generations - Both routines and rituals have benefits for children - Household routines are linked to better adjustment for children who live in single-parent, divorced,, or remarried households - Bedtime routes are related to better sleep habits for children - Mealtime routines predict that children and adolescent will have higher self-esteem and fewer emotional problems and will be less likely to use drugs and alcohol FAMILY VARIATION: SOCIAL CLASS AND CULTURE - Family is embedded in a larger social system – termed the macrosystem Differences in Family Values and Practices Related to Socioeconomic Status - A long history of research relating parents beliefs and practices to their social class or SES, a construct that comprises three related demographic charac: education, income, and occupational status - Lower SES mothers talk to their children less and are not as tuned in to the children’s speech as higher SES mothers o Tend to be more authoritarian and punitive o More likely to issue abrupt orders and less likely to give lengthy explanations - Higher SES parents reason with their children and present choices and then subtly influence the decisions the children make Cultural Patterns in Child Rearing - Parents in traditional cultures are less responsive and affectionate than parents in modern, technology advanced cultures - Socialization practices also differ in individualistic and collectivist cultures - Individualist cultures value ind autonomy and emphasize competition, self-actualization, dominance, and open expression of emotion - Collectivist cultures value interrelatedness and connectedness with the group and emphasize social harmony, cooperation, empathy, accommodation to the needs of other, and sometimes respect to authority - Nuclear family – parents and their children living together - Extended family – a unit of pp that includes relatives i.e. grandparents as well as members of the nuclear family THE CHANGING AMERICAN FAMILY - One change is that more mothers are working outside the home - Another change is that couples are waiting until they are older before they marry and have their first child - Opportunities to become parents have also expanded - Infertile couples can now have children through a variety of new reproductive technologies, or they can follow the old-fashioned route, adoption - Homosexual couples can become parents and the number of lesbian and gay parents as heads of households increases - Divorce rate is higher Parental Employment and Child Development - Working mothers o Little difference in how much time working mothers and non-working mothers spend with their children of the types of activities they engage o Fathers in families with employed mothers have also increased their parenting involvement o Men in dual-career families participate more in family and child-rearing tasks than men with stay at home wives  Even in dual-career families, women still perform most of the child care and housework: rd 2/3rds compared with men’s 1/3 o Children may be at inc risk when they reach adolescence b/c mothers who work encourage their children’s autonomy o Working mothers’ encouragement of autonomy and lack of supervision and monitoring may press independence on adolescents too early, creating problems o Boys esp. are likely to respond negatively to premature pressure for autonomy - Work stress and children’s adjustment o Fathers who experience work stress are less sensitive and engaged with their children and their wives Parenting after Thirty - Perhaps b/c they waited longer (and sometimes tried harder), older mothers feel more responsible about parenting, enjoy it more, express more positive affect with their infants than younger mothers do - Spend more social time with their infants and are more successful in eliciting vocal and imitative responses from tem, perhaps b/c as a result of their own maturity, they have gained more social and cognitive skills - Older fathers have more flexibility and freedom to balance demands of work and family than younger fathers, and they are 3x ore likely to have regular responsibility for some part of their children’s daily care - They are more involved in the parental role and experience more positive affect associated with child rearing New Reproductive Technologies - Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was developed to circumvent problems when the man has low sperm count, low sperm motility, or abnormally shaped sperm - In vitro fertilization was developed to circumvent problems with the women’s fallopian tubes are blocked o Can be used with a male donors sperm if the man’s supply of sperm is inadequate or with a female donors egg if the women cannot produce an egg - The risk of birth defect in infants conceived through ICSI or IVF is about 30-40% higher than in spontaneously conceived infants - If they survive, these children so as well as children conceived in the unusual manner in terms of their relationships with their mothers, their self-esteem, and the likelihood they will have beh or emotional problems - These children do well b/c of the eagerness and commitment of their parents, who made such extraordinary efforts to have them Adoption: Another Route to Parenthood - Adopted children have a higher risk of psychological problems than non-adopted children - But if adoption removes them from adverse conditions, such as long-term foster care or an institutional environment, it is better than staying in these dire circumstances - The benefits of adoption in these cases depend on the age at which the child is adopted - Infants from orphanages in Romania who were adopted before they were 6mos old were just as socially and emotionally well-adjusted as adopted who had not suffered early deprivation - Children, birth parents, and adoptive parents all benefit from open placements - The children have fewer beh problems; the adoptive parents have more secure relationships with the children; and the birth parents feel less depressed, guilt, and regretful Gay and Lesbian Parents 1. When a gay or lesbian parent leaves a heterosexual partner who is the child’s biological parent and then initiates a new homosexual relationship in which the two partners together care for the child 2. When a gay or lesbian couple choose to become parents though adoption or donor insemination - Lesbian mothers who have divorced their heterosexual partners differ little from heterosexual mothers in terms of self-concept, general happiness, and overall adjustment - In lesbian families, the biological mother tends to be more involved in child care and the non-biological mother spends longer hours in paid employment - Children in lesbian families develop normally - A large majority of children with gay fathers also grow up to be heterosexual adults Parenting Alone - Children whose mothers had never married were less sociable and socially skilled and displayed fewer positive beh with their mothers than children whose mothers were single b/c they were separated and divorced - These mothers are also younger and less educated than divorced mothers and more likely to be African American - They may have more psychological problems - Stress, financial hardship, and lack of social support all contribute to poorer child outcomes in single families just as they do in 2-parent families Divorce and Remarriage - Divorce has no single cause, but its probability rises when husbands and wives come from diff ethnic backgrounds, lack the religious conviction that divorce is wrong, abuse alcohol or other substances, and have poor communication skills or mental health problems - Couples are esp. likely to divorce if they experience high levels of stress from having limited education, facing economic hardship, getting married at a young age, and being overwhelmed with the responsibility of having children, esp. children with problems or children born before the marriage - Divorce is not a single event o Involves a series of steps that start long before the couple separates, continue through the pain of separation and the difficulty of setting up 2 separate households, and reverberate though often lengthy legal proceedings - Children in stable, well-functioning single-parent households are better off than children in conflict-ridden intact 2-parent families o This does not meant that the path is easy or that divorce is beneficial for all children - Effects of divorce on children o On average children form divorced families have more beh and emotional problems than children from 2-parent families o The more aggressive, noncompliant, and antisocial, less prosocial, have lower self-esteem, and experience more problems in their peer relationships o Children in divorced families have less positive relationships with their fathers, esp. when divorce occurs in early childhood and esp. when the child is a girl o After divorce, fathers are less likely to maintain contact with their daughter than their sons o Divorce has stronger effects on children’s problem beh and psychological stress than do race, birth order, illness, death of a family member, or parents low education o The effects can be long lasting too: the Terman longitudinal study in California showed that adults who experienced their parents’ divorce dies at younger ages than adults whose parents stayed married - Who is affected most o The age of the child when the parents separate makes a diff o It is often assumed that if parents separate when their children are either very young or all grown up, the effect of the divorce will be minor o Infants from divorced families are more likely than those in intact families to be insecure and disorganized in their attachments to their mothers and fathers and less positive and engaged in play with their parents o School-age children understand the concepts of divorce and separation better than younger children, but they too are usually shocked, worries, and sad when they find out that their parents and separating o A number of studies have suggested that divorce is worse for boys than girls  Preschool boys from divorced families were more likely than preschool girls to behave aggressively and immaturely o Boys are physiologically more vulnerable to stress than girls; parents and teachers are stricter with boys outbursts; boys in divorced families usually lose their male role model b/c they live with their mother; and boys get less emotional support from their overstressed parents, who find that their noisy, physical, and oppositional beh makes them more exhausting and difficult to parent o Boys are more likely to externalize their distress and girls to internalize it o Boys are also more likely than girls to have fights with their divorced mothers and in adulthood, young women from divorced families have more long term anxiety, depression and relationship difficulties o Some support is that girls suffer more before the divorce and boys suffer after it o The reaction to parental divorce is stronger for boys at younger ages and for girls in adolescence  Adolescent daughters of divorced parents show inc in antisocial beh, emotional disturbances, and conflicts with their mother; they may be sexually active, get pregnant, and get married o Children adjust better to divorce if they have a more optimistic, constructive, and realistic outlook  These children have fewer psychological problems in childhood and as young adults, and more secure in their romantic relationships - Divorce and the single-parent household o Children of divorce are growing up in single-parent households, which are at inc risk for multiple stresses that make child rearing difficult o A period of diminished parenting often follows divorce o Mothers themselves are suffering from the divorce and therefore are likely to be self-involved, erratic and inconsistent in dealing with their children o Children find the adjustment to divorce easier if they experience fewer stressors, o Authoritative parenting is associated with more positive adjustment of children in divorced families, just as it is in intact families o If divorce reduces stress and conflict and leads to better functioning of parents, children tend to benefit in the long run o As long as the 2 divorced parents can agree on child-rearing methods and maintain a cordial relationship, frequent visits with the non-residential parents are linked to more positive adjustment in children - Does custody matter? o Sole custody – a form of post-divorce child custody in which the child is exclusively with either the mother or the father o Joint physical custody – parents make decisions together regarding their child’s life and also share physical custody so that the child lives with each parent for about half the time o Custodial fathers have higher incomes than custodial mothers and are more likely to have emotional support from family and friends o When children are in father custody, mothers are more likely to stay involved with then than father are when children are in mother custody o Children in FC have the advantage of continues close ties with both parents o Fathers who seek custody are more emotionally invested in their children and more effective parents than fathers who do not seek custody o Even though children in FC were found to do better than children in MC, on average, they were not better adjusted than children in MC who also had high levels of contact with their fathers o Joint legal custody – both mother and father share the responsibility for decisions concerning their children’s lives, but the children may reside with only one of the parents  Children live with each parents for close to half the time and have physical access to both mother and father on a regular basis  Give children a sense of security and lessen their sense of abandonment by one parent o If parents have dramatically different lifestyles, contradictory values, or poor communication skills, if they cannot set aside their conflicts, or if they want to move to diff areas, joint custody is challenging and tends to be unstable - Remarriage o Majority of step children exhibit problems during the transition period immediately following remarriage, most show resilience, and three quarters have no long-term problems o Younger children adjust more easily; teens have a difficult time accepting their parent’s remarriage and are at greater risk for externalizing problems such as using alcohol, becoming delinquent, and having early sexual intercourse o They also report more conflict with their stepparents than adolescents in intact families have with their parents o Stepparents are less nurturing and affectionate with their stepchildren than biological parents are with theirs Chapter 8 – Peers DEFINITIONS AND DISTINCTIONS st - 1 distinction b/w a peer and a friend o Peer is another child of roughly the same age  A part of the child’s social world; they populate the school classroom, the neighbourhood, sharing info about tasks, engaging in conversations, and playing together on the playground  Interactions are short, do not involve strong commitments, and are limited to a specific context such as the classroom or the playground  May be one sided b/c they do not necessarily involve reciprocal liking or mutual respect o Friend is a peer with whom the child has a special relationship  Interact on a regular and sustained basis, develop expectations about future interactions, and engage in reciprocal actions such as sharing stories and secrets and supporting one another  Dyadic relationships with friends are charac by reciprocal liking, and this differ from relationships with other peers nd - 2 distinction b/w dyads and groups of children o The interactions b/w peers and friends that we have described relate to dyads, or pairs of children o Children also form groups of peers with defined boundaries and social organization  Include cliques, teams, and crowds o Groups develop their own norms, rules, and hierarchies, which regulate the activities of the group members DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS OF PEER INTERACTION - Children are active social partners from a very early age First Encounter I Infancy - First 6mos of life, babies touch and look at each other and are responsive to each other’s beh - These early beh can’t be considered truly social in the sense that an infant seeks and expects a response from another band - Not until the 2 half of the first year that infants begin to recognize a peer as a social partner - b/w 6-12mos infants start trying to interact with other infants by vocalizing, waving, and touching - table 8.1 the child’s development of peer interactions and friendships - social exchanges b/w infants are diff from adults, they are shorter and less sustained b/c infants are less reliably responsive than adults o also more equal b/c adults usually take the lead in maintaining interactions with infants Social Exchanges between Toddlers - b/w age 1 and 2, children make gains in locomotion and language, and this increases the complexity of their social exchanges - they develop the ability to engage in complementary social interactions - they can take turns and reverse roles in their play; they begin to imitate each other and show awareness that they’re being imitated - when they have positive social interactions, they’re more likely to smile or laugh than they did when they were infants - interaction also last longer rd - researchers studying 2yr olds found that sometimes play consisted of 2 children playing while the 3 just watches, more than half of the time all three children participated actively and directed vocalizations, gestures, and movements towards each of the other 2 children in quite complex social exchanges - children’s main social achievement is sharing meaning with a partner o suggest a particular activity by looking at their partner o they give a signal to switch roles o communicate that they both share knowledge by smiling at each other o this sharing of meaning makes it possible for children to play a wider range of games and engage in pretend play together Peer Play in Early Childhood - as children get older, they are increasingly likely to play together in the more complex and social ways reflected in o associative play – interaction in which young children share toys, materials, and sometimes conversation but are not engages in a joint project – o and cooperative play - interaction in which children share goals and work together to achieve them o and decreasingly likely to simply watch or play alongside each other in parallel play – interaction in which very young children are doing the same thing, often side by side, but, are not engages with each other - Negative exchanges and conflicts also increase over the preschool years - Social play and conflicts go together - Young children who frequently initiate conflicts with peers are also the most sociable and the most likely to initiate peer interactions - Table 8.2 types of play in preschool age children pg. 253 - Pretend play is important in the dev of social competence in early childhood o Permits children to experience the roles and feelings of others in a playful context, and it teaches them too function as part of a social group and coordinate their activities with other children o First appears about halfway through the 2ndyr usually with mothers or an older sibling, but as children develop social skills and have more opportunities to meet other children, peers become the most common pretend-pay partners - Age 3 – pretend play is complex, cooperative, dramatic o Children share symbolic meanings in their pretend play o 4yr olds have longer play sequences and can negotiate roles, rules, and themes of pretend play more easily than 3yr olds o 5yr olds pretend play includes slow motion fistfights, gun battles, and prolonged, staggering death scenes with broad exaggerated gestures  Dressing up and acting out o Pretend play peaks when children are about 6yrs old – involves highly coordinated fantasies, rapid transitions between, multiple roles, and unique transformations of objects and situations Pretend society in School Years - Physical aggression towards peers decreases and generosity and helpfulness inc - The hallmark of the school year is concern about being accepted by peers and fitting in with classmates - The importance of the peer’s age o The type of peers children choose to spend time with also changes over the school yrs. o Age of the peer becomes a more important factor, and companionship with same-age peers inc o Same age mates share interests and abilities - The importance of the peer’s gender o Up to age 3 or 4, children are equally likely to choose same-gender or other-gender companions o Up to age 7, they are willing to play with a peer of the opposite sex o Gender-exclusivity rule has exceptions  A girl and boy may spend time together at church or in the neighbourhood, but they keep their friendship a secret from their classmates o Children segregate themselves into gender-specific groups b/c of their diff interests and play styles even in first grade o Girls tend to play quite games, they stay closer to the teacher and to the school o Boys play more violent games, run, more likely to get dirty; take up 10x more space than girls o Boys are more competitive, and as they get older they tend to prefer organized games controlled by rules o Pretend play: boys are more likely to enact superhero roles; girls portray mommies and princesses o Girls and boys are more competitive in groups than dyads, diff is more marked for boys o In mixed-gender groups, boys become less boisterous and girls more so b/c children adjust their beh to fit the style of play that is preferred by their other-sex playmates Peer Interactions in Adolescence - High school students spend 30% of their time with peers; 13% with parents - Peers offer the perspective of equals who share abilities, goals, and problems - Experts in what’s cool and happening, and they influence teens’ styles of interpersonal beh, selection of friends, and choice of fashion and entertainment - Peers have a stronger influence on whether teens use alcohol, smoke and illegal drugs, exp. Weed, than parents do - Influence is esp. sig if adolescents lack parental support - Authoritative parents are less susceptible to peer pressure than adolescents whose parents are not PEERS AS SOCIALIZERS - Modelling behaviour o Peers influence each other by acting as social models o Older children learn about social rules by watching their peers o In adolescents, young ppl copy peer models as they decide what to wear, how much to eat, when to start smoking, whether to join a gang, and if they should skip school o Peers influence can be positive or neg o Children are more likely to imitate peers who are older, more powerful, and more prestigious - Reinforcing and punishing beh o Peer pressure implies, peers not only model beh but also actively try to convince other children to engage in them  peers are increasingly likely to reinforce each other as they get older o children play less with toys regarded as being for the opposite gender after they have been criticized by their peers for doing so o when adolescents are greeted with peers’ taunts for their choice of clothing or their taste in friends, they are likely to adjust their dress code or change their companions o peer pressure can include modeling the antisocial beh, encouraging friends to do it too, reinforcing them by hanging out together when they engage in the antisocial beh, and criticising or dropping peers who don’t get with the program - social comparison o providing standards against which children measure themselves o children have few objective ways to rate their own charac, abilities, and actions, and so they turn to other ppl, particularly peers o social comparison, they watch and evaluate their peers and then use what they’ve learned to evaluate themselves  helps children define who they are and determine how well they think they “stack up” against their peers  if children think they are as good as their peers, their self-esteem is high, but if they see themselves as falling short, their self-esteem suffers o as a basis for self-definition, the peer group is unequaled o children use social comparison with their peers as a way to evaluate themselves with increasing frequency in the early years of elementary school and once begun, this process never stops PEER STATUS - peers are important b/c they give children a sense of acceptance or status in the world outside the family Studying Peer Status: Acceptance and Rejection - the most common way to study children’s peer status is with sociometric techniques o these techniques measure peer acceptance and rejection by assessing how children like or dislike each another - nominations sociometric technique, researchers ask each child to name a number of peers whom they like most in their class and the same number of peers whom they like least o researcher then sums the scores of the most- and least-liked nominations for each child o popular children – receive the largest number of most-liked nominations and the fewest-least liked o average children – receive some of both types of nominations but not as many liked nominations as the popular o neglected children – receive few most-liked and few least-liked votes; they are not necessarily disliked by their classmates; they are isolated and friendless o controversial children – receive a large number of most-liked and least-liked nominations o rejected children – receive many least-liked votes and few most-liked nominations o by limiting the number of choices, researchers miss info about how children feel toward most of their classmates - roster-and-rating sociometric procedure o Children are given a list of all their classmates and asked to rate on a 5pnt scale on how much they like to play with, work with, them and etc. o Each child’s level of acceptance is then determined from his/her average rating - Nominations approach is better for finding out how each child feels about everyone else in the group - Rating scale measures of acceptance are also better for detecting changes in acceptance when interventions are carried out to help children with peer relations problems - 3 method for assessing peer status is gathering info about children perceive popularity o Teachers, parents, peers, and children themselves can be asked to rate ind children’s level of popularity o In childhood, popularity is strong, related to popularity assessed with sociometric tech o In adolescence, these associations are weak b/c for youth, popularity is a construct that involves social prominence – visibility and recognition – rather than simple preference – liking or disliking Factors That Affect Peer Acceptance - A status as popular, rejected or neglected depends on a child beh and cognitive, and social skills; also depends on superficial factors such as name and physical appearance - Behaviours that make a difference o Two types of popular children have been identified o The majority of popular children are friendly toward their peers and well-liked by them  They are assertive but not disruptive or aggressive  Good at communication, help set the rules for the group, and engage in more prosocial beh o A small number of children and adolescents who are perceived to be popular display a mix of positive and negative beh  Popular-aggressive – athletic, arrogant, and aggressive, but are viewed as cool and attractive  Wield high levels of social influences even though their actions are often manipulative rather than prosocial  Classmates imitate them  even school bullies may enjoy this kind of popularity, although their peers may avoid them for fear of becoming the victim  illustrates adaptive values of aggression; for these ind aggression provides a route to power and influence  show inc alcohol use and sexual activity o two types of rejected children:  aggressive-rejected children – poor self-control and exhibit frequent aggression and beh problems  nonaggressive-rejected children – anxious, withdrawn, and socially and unskilled o social withdrawal is one of the strongest correlates of peer rejection in middle childhood and adolescence o neglected children whose peers ignore them but do not necessarily reject them, are shy, quite, and less aggressive than other children o 2 types of children are neglected:  Socially reticent children – watch others from afar, remain unoccupied in social company, and hover near but do not engage in interaction  Unsociable / socially uninterested children – not anxious or fearful but simply refrain from social interaction b/c they prefer to play alone - Biological predispositions o Children who are likely to be rejected by their peers b/c they are disruptive, aggressive, and hyperactive are temperamentally active, outgoing, impulsive, and unfocused  Their temperaments are charac by high extraversion-surgency and poor effortful control o Children who are likely to be rejected or neglected by their peers b/c they are withdrawn are temperamentally unsociable: they are less likely to smile and gaze during interactions with their mothers in early infancy and have low extraversion-surgency in early childhood o Children who are likely to be popular b/c their interactions with peers are frequent and competent have temperaments that are neither inhibited nor impulsive o Temperaments interacts with experience to predict peer status o Children are more likely to be rejected by their peers if they are exposed to high levels of conflict b/w their parents and have a temperament that is low in effortful control  More likely to become socially withdrawn if their mothers are negative and they have a shy temperament - Social-cognitive skills o Children are more likely to be accepted by their peers if they have social knowledge and skill to ask new acquaintances for info, offer info, or invite other children to join them in an activity o Children who have a better understanding of other ppl’s mental states and more awareness of their emotions and motives are less likely to be anxious and withdrawn or aggressive and disruptive than children who lack this knowledge o Children who lack social skills and hover silently on the outskirts of the groups or make aggressive or inappropriate remarks are behind from the beginning o Children approaching a group of peers need to understand the other’s communications clearly, interpret their beh accurately, formulate their own goals and strategies based on these interpretations, make useful decisions about how to act, communicate clearly to others, and try out an then evaluate their own social strategies o Cognitive steps in evaluating social situations  As children progress through the steps in the model, they make decisions or take actions that are accurate or inaccurate, helpful or unhelpful  Using this model Dodge compared 5-7yr old children who were rated as being either socially competent or incompetent by their teachers and peers  Socially incompetent children were less likely to notice and interpret the cues correctly, generated fewer competent responses, and chose less appropriate responses  Pg. 260 - Are children always reflective? o Social-information processing model does not explain all social interactions with peers o Decision-making sequence has already been completed while the child is still thinking about what to do o As children are exposed to social situations, they develop a set of social habits that they employ when they encounter similar situations o Automaticity of social beh has its advantages  Permits quick response, saves time and cognitive energy that would otherwise be used deliberating among alt, and makes for a more efficient social life  Can also lead to problems, esp. is assumptions about the new situation are not correct o Step by step social information processing approach may be a better model for encounters in new or ambiguous situations than in familiar situations or with well know peers o When children respond quickly, they are more likely to rely on habitual beh than when they are given plenty of time to consider their responses o Social-info processing model may also be more suitable for explaining the reactions of children who are by temperament more reflective, rational, and deliberative and less useful for impulsive children  Emotions should be incorporated into this model - Children’s goals in social interactions o Children’s goals affect their strategies in social situations, and this is related to their peer status o Children who want to create or maintain social relationships are likely to use prosocial strategies and to be accepted by their peers o Children whose goal is to dominate others may choose coercive strategies and be rejected o High-status popular children offer positive goals and strategies  Describe outgoing and sociable beh to achieve this goal o Low-status, rejected children are more likely to describe hostile goals and strategies and say that they would avoid making new friends in a new situation o Socially withdrawn children pursue low-cost social goals and use indirect strategies to initiate social interactions - Physical appearance o Another factor that influences children’s peer status is how they look o Newborns are more likely to look at attractive faces o Adults tend to attribute positive qualities to ind who are physically attractive, and children do this as well o Children expect to find charac such as friendliness, fearlessness, and willingness to share in good- looking peers and expect unattractive children to be aggressive, antisocial, and mean o The link b/w attractiveness and popularity has been confirmed in other studies as well o When African American children in grades 4 and 7 were asked what makes a boy or girls popular, physical appearance was one of the charac they mentioned most often - Blending in o Another factor that affects peer status is children’s ability to blend in o Children who look or act odd are unlikely to be popular; children with disruptive or hyperactive beh are likely to be rejected o Researchers suggest that the reason peers reject socially withdrawn children is because they don’t fit in; their demeanor runs contrary to age-specific norms and expectations for social interaction o A typical beh becomes more salient to the peer group as children get older, which may explain why association b/w social withdrawal and peer rejection increases with age o Unusual names can mean being od: children learn very quickly which names are popular and thus acceptable or desirable  Most likely to be friendly to a peer with a name that’s currently out of favour  Like children with gender-typical names rather than names that are usually given to the opposite sex  Prefer peers who play in what other children consider acceptable ways o Wearing the right clothes also makes a difference o Children from a majority ethnic group are more popular too; they blend in b/c they are similar to most of their classmates Consequences of Peer Rejection - Children have many unpleasant ways of expressing their dislike of their peers - When children are rejected by their peers, effects can be dismal - What determines how children react to rejection? o Children respond to being rejected by their peers in different ways, depending on their charac o More likely to interpret ambiguous comments as rejection and respond with distress if they are sensitive to rejection and frequently receive negative feedback o Less likely to interpret ambiguous comments as rejection if they are self-confident and approach social situations in a positive way rather than dreading that they won’t measure up o Children’s reactions to rejection depend on who is doing the rejecting well o Rejection is more hurtful if it comes from a peer the child is close to or admire - Short-and long-term consequences of rejection o Being rejected can lead to both short term and long term problems o Loneliness is one the immediate problems o Rejected children often report feeling lonely; they are more likely to feel socially isolated and alienated than children of any other peer status o Even in kindergarten, rejected children are lonely o Nonaggressive rejected children typically feel lonelier than aggressive-rejected children o Rejected children who have a stable friendship with even one other child are likely to feel less lonely than totally friendless children o Rejected children has difficulties in school, poorer quality relationships with their teachers and more trouble with their grades, less active and cooperative in the classroom, and more likely to drop out of school entirely and to develop patterns of criminal activity, less likely to develop beh and emotional problems, including anxiety, depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem - Can peer status change? o Children’s peer status is quite stable over time o Popular children do sometimes lose their high status, and neglected children occasionally gain some social acceptance, but rejected children are unlikely to change their social status  Result of reputational bias, the tendency of children to interpret peers’ beh on the basis of past encounters and impressions o When children are asked to judge peers’ negative beh, they are likely to excuse a child whom they earlier liked, giving that child benefit of the doubt o Reputations colour children’s interpretations of peer’s actions and helps account for the stability of children’s status across time o The beh and charac of the children themselves also contribute WHEN PEERS BECOME FRIENDS - A child can be rejected or neglected by their classmates but still have at least one friend; another child can be widely accepted by classmates but lack a close friend Age Changes Friendship - Earliest friendships o 1-2yr olds form rudimentary friendships o 50-70% of early friendships last more than a year o Preschool: children from friendships based on similarities of age and gender and become friends with peers who show beh tendencies similar to their own o This tendency to associate with similar others – homophily, which means love the same o Children direct more social overtures to friends, cooperate more with them, and show more positive beh toward them o Older preschoolers more likely to engage in reciprocal relationships o Children who are more successful in forming friendships have more advanced social-cognitive abilities, including perspective-taking ability, understanding of other ppl’s social intentions, ability to read other ppl emotional cues, and regulation of their own emotional states - Changing friendship goals o As children grow up, the goals and processes involved in forming friendships change o Ages 3-7, the goal is coordinated play, and all of the children’s social processes are organized to promote successful and fun playful interactions o 8-12, the goal changes to concern about being accepted by same-gender peers o Children want to know the norms of the group so they can figure out which actions will lead to acceptance and inclusion and which to rejection and exclusion o Negative gossip, involves sharing negative info about another child; when this works well, the partner responds with interest, more negative gossip, and a feeling of solidarity o in adolescence, the focus of friendship shifts to self-understanding o self-exploration and self-disclosure are the principle social processes, and intense honesty and problem solving accompany them - changing friendship expectations o children’s expectations about relationships change as the age o table 8.4 pg. 275; table 8.5 pg. 276 o 7-8yrs, children expect friends to be demographically like them, to provide stimulating ideas, offer help, give judgements, share common activities, and be able to join them in organized play o 9-10yrs, children think friends should be nice to each another and help each other; expect loyalty and trust, expect that friends will accept and admire them, will be committed to the friendship and will express values and attitudes toward rules that are like their own o 11-12yrs, children still expect friends to accept and admire them, enhance their sense of self- wroth, and be loyal and committed, but they also begin to expect genuineness and the potential for intimacy; expect friends to understand them and to be willing to self-disclose; they want friends to accept their help, share common interests, and hold attitudes and values like their across a range of topics, not just rules o Beyond age 12, adolescence continue to expect genuineness, the potential for intimacy, and common interests in their friends, but they also think that it is important for friends to provide emotional support o Role of friendship in promoting self-worth is less salient in many non-Western cultures, dev of the self is not considered a major dev task o Cultural diff is that emotional intimacy may be a more common aspect of friendship expectations in affluent Western cultures; in cultures with subsistence economies, expectations of instrumental support are more common Interactions with Friends - Children express more positive affect in their interactions with friends than with non-friends, they share more with friends, although when friends are tough competitors, sharing dec - Friends disagree more than non-friends, but their conflicts are less heated, and the children are more likely to resolve conflicts in an equitable way and ensure that the resolution preserved their friendship - The specific ways in which friendship is expressed vary somewhat in individualistic and collectivistic cultures - In individualistic Western cultures, assistance usually consists of giving advice and cognitive support - In collectivist cultures, instrumental and material support is more important Friendship Patterns - To examine children’s friendship patterns, researchers in one study observed 8-15yr olds at summer camp, and identified 5 different friendship patterns o Rotation group – children readily formed new relationships but their social ties showed little stability; playful teasers; aggressive, bossy, untrustworthy o Growth group – children who added new relationships and kept the existing ones; neither bossy nor easily pushed around o Decline group – children whose friendships broke up and were not replaced; caring, shared with others, and engages in playful teasing; judged to be show offs o Static group – maintained a stable pool of friendships and added no new ones; less apt to tease others, but were also less caring; girls in this group were known for their honesty o Friendless group – made no friends. Perceived as timid, shy, and preferring to play alone, rated as less caring, sharing, honest than their peers, were the loneliest o Gender is a factor in the stability of children’s peer relationships  Girls tendency to form close friendships in isolation from the larger group might jeopardize their relationships  Boys’ same-gender friendships are more often embedded in a larger group of relationships, which provides a safety net and access to their-party mediators, allies, and alternative partners o Another reason girl’s friendships may be more fragile is the intimacy expressed in them  Girls are more likely than boys to worry that a friendship might end or feel that they’ve done something to damage a friendship  Co-rumination – conversation in which friends talk together about their personal problems and negative feelings  When things go wrong, girls may intensify the problem by divulging intimate secrets about their friend to other  Boys are less intimate with each other, less likely to divulge personal info about their friend, and when problems arise, more likely to confront the friend directly The Pros and Cons of Friendship - Friends provide support, intimacy, and guidance, children with friend are less lonely and depressed - Children with lots of friends can deal with getting low grades w/o becoming depressed th - 5 graders who had a reciprocated best friendship were better adjusted when they reached adulthood - Withdrawn children’s friends are likely to be withdrawn and victimized themselves, and these friendships provide less fun, help, and guidance than other friendships - Rejected children’s friendships are likely to be with other rejected children and to be charac by conflict rather than intimacy; these children often encourage each other’s deviant beh i.e. cheating - When children have poor quality friendships they are more depressed and more likely to be victimized esp. if they have been rejected by their larger peer group Romantic Relationships - First develop in adolescence - Three myths about adolescent romantic relationships - Myth 1: adolescent romantic relationships are rare and brief o Reality: they are neither uncommon not transitory; by middle adolescence most youth have been involved in at least one romantic relationship; high school students have more frequent interactions with romantic partners than with parents, siblings, or friends - Myth 2: adolescent romantic relationships are unimportant o Reality: significant for adolescent functioning; report more conflicts, have more mood swings, and the relationship breaks up, experience more symptoms of depression; depression also accompanies a romantic relationship with negative qualities, promiscuity, neg romantic relationships; those in romantic relationships have higher self-wroth, experience less social anxiety, and feel more part of their peer group than adolescents w/o romantic partners - Myth 3: romantic relationships simply mirror other social relationships o Reality: relationships are related to their other relationships; those with close relationships with their parents tend to have closer romantic relationships; if parents are harsh, they are likely to behave aggressively - changes in romantic dynamics over time o frequency of romantic involvement increases and so does the length of time in a relationship o the peer group plays a major role in partner choice in early adolescence o peer group networks and romantic relationships support each other: peer group networks support early romantic pairings, and romantic pairings facilitate connections b/w pairs in the network o older adolescents focus more on charac that underlie intimacy and compatibility INTERACTIOM IN GROUPS Dominance Hierarchies - dominance hierarchy or pecking order; evidence of a hierarchy has been observed in children as young as 1½ to o at this age, dominant children are likely to be strong, cognitively mature, and persistent, and girls often dominate boys - after age 3, boys more often take the dominant roles; for the next few years, dominance is based on children’s ability to direct the beh of others in the group, lead them to play, and physically coerce them - in middle childhood and early adolescence, dominance becomes based on leadership skills, attractive appearance, academic performance, athletic prowess, and pubertal dev - preschool children’s dominance hierarchies are simpler and more loosely differentiated than older children’s, and they tend to perceive their own positions in the pecking order as a bit higher than they really are; as children mature, they become increasingly accurate at judging their position - dominance hierarchies emerge quickly - group hierarchies serve a number of important functions o reduce the levels of aggression among group members o divide the tasks of the group, with lower-status members taking worker roles and director roles going to the more dominant members o determine the allocation of resources Cliques, Crowds, and Gangs - clique, a group based on friendship and shared interests o range in size from 3-9 children, and members usually are the same gender and race o by the time children are about 11yrs old, most of their interactions with peers occurs in the context of the clique - membership in the clique enhances children’s psychological well-being and ability to cope with stress o decline in years as a result of de-grouping or loosening clique ties - clique is replaced by the crowd – a collection of people who share attitudes or activities that define a particular stereotype o may or may not spend much time together but crowd members say that the crowd provides support, fosters friendships, and facilitates social interaction - adolescents were better adjusted if they were affiliated with a high-status peer crowd i.e. jock - in the late adolescent years, crowds tend to disband, and the importance of crowd affiliation declines as adolescents focus instead on close dyadic friendships and romance - gang – group of adolescent or adults who form an allegiance for a common purpose o formal gangs are often involved in criminal activity; being in a gang thus may lead to delinquency and other negative activities o belonging to a gang makes it difficult for adolescents to change their lifestyles or explore new identities b/c they are channeled into social ties with ind who share their values and identities o encourage stereotyping, adolescent are biased in their use of reputational or stereotypic info about members of other gangs, esp. in ambiguous situations Chapter 9 – Schools and Media ELECTRONIC MEDIA AND CHILDREN’S SOCIAL LIVES Watching Television and Playing Video Games - TV can be a positive influence on children, showing them examples of tolerance and kindness - Negative consequences, largely due to the portrayal of aggression and violence, have concerned parents around the world - Hou
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