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PSYC21H3 (14)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

PSYC21 Final Notes Lecture 6 Social Mind I Prosocial behavior Obstacles to Insight from attachment theory that can prevent positive prosocial prosocial behavior behavior eg: altruism and mindreading Group practices Customs Biological constraints Developmental constraints Developmen 6 months: Babies cry when they hear others cry t of Less than 2 years: Babies comfort peers and adults who are upset prosocial Shows cooperative behaviors: behavior Perceptual role taking Sense of personal identity Internalized values Self-regulation Cultural differences: Whiting & Whiting, 1975: studied 3 to 11 year olds Countries A: Kenya, Mexico, Philippines Countries B: Okinawa, India, United States Children from countries A showed more prosocial behavior (offering help and making responsible suggestions) than children from countries B Countries in group A have a higher % of women working, and so mothers are more likely to delegate household responsibilities to chlildren The practice of being useful on a daily basis may increase prosocial behaviors related the childrens prosocial behavior to seeing how parents work everyday, they wanna be more helpful around the house Countries that value career achievement may decrease prosocial behaviors Innate intersubjectivity: imitation one of the primary ways that intersubjectivity manifests itself you cant really imitate unless youre doing what someone else is doing that involves being able to think about others states involves a lot of diff behaviors Imitation intended imitations in provocations newborns eg: actively imitating what other ppl are doing, or get someone to imitate you (that is the beginning of real communication) by imitating you are conveying that you understand what theyre doing but once you send the signal to them to imitate you, that means smth is being exchanged macaque babies can imitate too Fxns of Emotionally charged imitation Expressive Communicative: Affirmations & acceptances Project experience of how youre treated raised, can potentially affect how you understand the Nim world www.notesolution.comImitation: Nagy & Molnar infant imitated after a period of delay like later on in the convo to try to convey smth surprise of the behavior coupled with a physiological distinction bw passively imitate (heart rate goes up) or signal to your buddy (heart rate went down) Heart rate increased during imitation, but heart rate decreased when infants spontaneously produced previously imitated gestures neonatal is new and more complicated that just imitating someone children are also able to provoke and try to signal to the other person, info they have a desire to be imitated by others, they can be the experimenter too Meltzoffs assertions about cognition reported imitation first in 1977 brain stem in infant was fully fxnal, but higher brain centres was not organized rxns were assumed to be reflex but when infants were able to imitate just blew everyone away infant is matching perception of the other with their own internal rep of their own body Recognition of self-other equivalences is the foundation, not the outcome, of social cognition The acts of self and other are represented within a supramodal code This provides infants w an interpretive framework for understanding the behavior they see The bedrock on which social cognition is built is the perception that others are like me. Questioning methodogical issues, Meltzoff (1977): coder was blind to what infant has seen True imitation vs. global arousal: imitation might just reflect excitement Previous Parents might traincondition their infants to imitate learning Experimenters might demonstrate contingently Scoring behavior Behavior not distinct influenced by whether coder knew what behaviors were demonstrated general arousal = reflex if you watch smth on a screen it takes you twice as long to imitate Population: 6 infants (3 males and 3 females) Age: Mean = 14.3 days Procedure: o Baseline: 90 seconds of the experimenter with an unresponsive face o Demonstration of four gestures: Lip protrusion Mouth opening Tongue protrusion Sequential finger moving Results: judged behavior varies as a fxn of the experimental condn Greater tongue- protrusion by infants during the tongue- protrusion condn than during other condns Greater mouth opening by infants during mouth opening condn than during other condns What mechanisms do or dont explain imitation Previous Experimenter didnt appear to reinforce the infant learning Parents indicated that they were not aware that infants could imitate in the first 21 condning days of life behaviors dont matter as much as all the theories generated from the behaviors
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