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PSYC21H3 (14)

All midterm notes, includes lecture AND readings

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

PSYC21 Notes Lecture 1 Lecture notes: Introductio focus on developmental social mind, kinda like reading your mind n putting social in front of the mind means to say the mind doesnt develop wo other ppl, that wo other ppl we cant understand other ppl focus on the mind as a social entity , how its flexible in 2 ways emotional bonding and attachment, how minds understand other minds attachment and intersubjectivity false beliefs like me Joint attn Social behavior (how other ppl influence our actions) memory (if we dont keep track of ytd, we dont know how well we can do today, unifies the processes involved in our actions, and ourselves) self (what is the diff bw a social mind and self? Are they synonymous?) ^ are there mental capabilities that arent tied to your sense of self? Can we access that? What is You know some things before what hes gonna say: thats your social mind at the social Youre anticipating, wo having to hear every single word (aka mind reading) mind? We have a desire to understand ppl, to be heard by other ppl, to talk to other How we take the info, all the social cues around us, we then begin to figure out specific processes in the mind and the brain Were integrating everything tgt, gives us knowledge not just about the ppl around us but the world in general Neuroscience is included here becuz: we have so many developmental theories, findings from neuroscience give us very specific ideas about what goes on in the brain during aging, gives us a bigger picture of all the diff processes Social mind is flexible in 2 ways: not just important to get it right, you need to be able to entertain any other hypotheses in order to know what other ppl are thinking Attachment rep early experiences, those are plastic, they organize how we expect other ppl to treat us in the future Attachment theory was proposed with an evolutionary framework in mind Triangle = tinker toy, crib, animals False beliefs = one of the main paradigms for defining how we have a Theory of 2 children, take one out of the room, move candy into another box, ask the first child who saw the movement if they know where child B knows where the candy is Tells us if the child can simultaneously holds 2 POV, usually after age 4 they can do this, they can start differentiating bw the knowledge of their own mind and anothers, this is where ToM really came from But now kids much younger than age 3 or 4 can entertain these sort of false like me hypothesis = being able to distinguish self and other, the very beginning of understanding, being able to extend yourselves into others shoes Reading: deHaan & Gunnar (2009) ERPs tgt with source localization allowed scientists to consider similarities and diff in patterns of brain activation in infants and adults in response to visual social stimuli (like Relations bw neural processes and social or cognitive processing must be studied at multiple levels of analysis A complex network of interconnected subcortical and cortical brain structures has been implicated as a substrate to social cognition in adults Includes hypothalamus, amygdala, anterior temporal lobe, posterior superior temporal sulcus, orbital prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex A similar network is involved in children, but that it develops over an extended period from infancy until young adulthood Some components (eg: amygdala) come online much earlier than other regions (eg: cortical regions) Extent and pattern of cortical activation related to social processing change with age Fusiform face area is less activated in children than adults Components includes our behavior of how we interact with others, thoughts and of social emotions we experience in relation to others, perceptions of social cues processing challenge: social processes include such complex constructs like empathy, motivation, ToM, which are difficult to map directly onto neural systems skill of social referencing is made of o sharing attn (help to seek social info) o emotion recognition and associative learning (imp for relating emotional info provided by others to novel events) o emotion regulation (imp for using emotional info provided by others to govern ones own behavior) use of social info to regulate decision making consists of o cognitive control (keeps relevant info in an active state and exerts goal-directed behavio) o future orientation (involves anticipating consequences on reward & punishment) o perspective taking (considering thoughts and perspectives of language development in first 3 years of life o changes in perception of phonetic contrasts in infants native vs. non-native lang o associating words with meanings o producing first words o combining words into 2 or 3 word utterances o speaking in full sentences complex construct of empathy o bottom-up processing of shared motor representations o parietal areas known to be crucial in differentiating my perspective from others o top-down executive processing (motivations, intentions, self- regulation)
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