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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

Patricia Bauer Event Memory: Neural, Cognitive, and Social Influences on Early Development - Focus on lower level of analysis (neural systems, basic cognitive processes and social influences) - Event (k. Nelson) o Events involve people in purposeful activities and acting on objects and interacting with each other to achieve some result o Exclude physical transformations (water is water, dripping is water) o Events are things we go through everydayunique experiences that define us o Specifies what we remember: actors, objects, actions (elements we combine to achieve a goal) - Early infant memory o after birth, children able to distinguish novel vs familiar story passages told to them while in the last weeks of pregnancy o infants learnbenefit from past experiences - Declarative and non-declarative memory o Memory is not unitary trait, comprised of many systems, serve different functions and follow different rules of operation o Declarative memory Also known as explicit memory Captures what we refer to as memoryremembering Capacity to explicitly recall names, places, events and so on Fast, flexible and fallible (memory traces degrade during recollection) One trail learning, not tied to specific modalitycontext o Non-Declarative memory non conscious abilities capacity for learning habits and skills, priming and forms of conditioning impact of experience is made evident when there is a change in behaviour or performance (but that experience leading to the change is not consciously accessible) slow, reliable and inflexible - brain areas o non-declarative memory (NDM) neocortex (priming) striatum (skill learning) cerebellum (conditioning) these regions develop early and support early emergence of NDM o the circuit through the brain and NDM complete around the first year of life (shows early emergence of NDM) o declarative memory multi-component networking (temporal and cortical structures) entire circuit finishes developing the first year of life and continues to develop thereafter and pronounced changes in declarative memory - measuring Declarative memory (DM) non-verbally o challenge: to distinguish if infant has conscious access to mental content (hard to tell because they can not verbally comment) o use visual paired comparisons and habituation to express non verbal recognition o attentional preference techniques measure changes in infant responses to previously encountered stimuli unclear whether they measure the same type of recognition as evidenced when adults explicitly affirm that they have seen that stimulus before mandler (1998) suggests that infant recognition memory experiments are a form of NDM explicit judgments are not required to produce a recognition response (should not be assumed that such responses are explicit) o deferred imitation
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